Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba)  is one of the four "home nations" that make up the United Kingdom. Sharing a 60 mile (96 km) long land border with England to the south, and separated from Northern Ireland by the North Channel of the Irish Sea, Scotland is surrounded by the bracing waters of the North Sea to the east, and the North Atlantic Ocean to the west and north. The capital is Edinburgh; the largest city is Glasgow. Apart from these and several other cities, the popular image of Scotland for most travellers, of course, centres on the "Highlands and Islands" - a wonderfully diverse land, Scotland has much to offer virtually any traveller.
Administratively, Scotland has been divided into a large number of traditional counties and (currently) 32 modern unitary authorities. These are of only limited use to the traveller, however, and an alternative regionalisation - based on culture and geography - is far more practical (from south to north):
Scotland has six cities. Glasgow is the largest with a population of approximately 620,000 people (more than two million in the metro area) while the capital, Edinburgh, has around 450,000, with Aberdeen next at about 220,000 inhabitants.
- Edinburgh (Gaelic: Dùn Èideann) - the capital of Scotland, home to the World's largest Arts Festival every August and the First European City of Literature. Most of the city centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
- Aberdeen (Gaelic: Obar Dheathain) - Scotland's third largest city, the Oil & Gas Capital of Europe, home to two universities
- Dumfries (Gaelic: Dùn Phris) - main town in the southern Scotland/Borders area
- Dundee (Gaelic: Dùn Dè) - vibrant city with high population of students and one of the most distinct (incomprehensible) accents you'll hear
- Glasgow (Gaelic: Glaschu) - Scotland's largest city and at one time the largest ship building industry in the world.
- Inverness (Gaelic: Inbhir Nis) - fast growing capital of the Highlands
- Stirling (Gaelic: Sruighlea) - a royal fortress city with a vibrant modern outlook. It was granted city status in 2002
Scotland has extensive wilderness areas, some of which have been proclaimed as National Parks:
- The Cairngorms - a mountain range near Aviemore and the largest National Park in Scotland
- Loch Lomond & the Trossachs - Scotland's first national park
- Loch Ness - Scotland's most famous loch.
Many world-class scenic areas are not (yet) protected as National Parks, though some have other designations such as National Scenic Areas or Forest Parks. The Lochaber region contains the impressive Glencoe as well as Scotland's highest mountain, Ben Nevis. The Torridon and Wester Ross areas are also popular mountaineering destinations. Most popular of all with climbers are the Black Cuillin of Skye - but there's plenty of scope for walkers here as well.
It has many historic Islands. Islay is known as the Queen of Hebrides, has eight whisky distilleries, and you can still see today the parliament site of the Clan Donald from 1200 AD, when the Clan Donald ruled the western seaboard of Scotland. The Isle of Arran is also a fantastic destination as well.
There are nice little villages such as Inverkip, John O' Groats, Bettyhill and Langbank, all which have nice beaches. There are good places to fish down at a couple of these villages as well.
A person from Scotland is called a Scot, or you would say that they are Scottish. The word "Scotch" applies to things - for example, whisky, Scotch eggs, Scotch beef and Scotch Corner (a road junction leading to Scotland). Of course, you should not refer to Scotland as England, or Scottish as English.
Scotland has a rich cultural history much of which is preserved in historic buildings throughout the country. Prehistoric settlements can be traced back to 9600 BC, as well as the famous standing stones in Lewis and Orkney. The Romans, fronted by Julius Caesar in 55 BC, made initial incursions but finally invaded Britain in 43AD, moving into the Southern half of Scotland, but not occupying the country due to the fierce resistance efforts of the native Caledonian tribes. Today, Hadrian's Wall to the south of the Scottish-English border is perceived by some as one of the most famous Roman remains in the world, arguably on a par with the 8-foot-arch on Naxos.
After the withdrawal of the machinery of the Roman Empire, around AD 411, there followed the so-called Dark Ages. However, since the Roman occupation affected mostly just the South of the Island of Britain, the bit now called Scotland was unaffected and had been, even at the great battle at Mons Graupius. Because the grip of Roman hegemony had now loosened, all sorts of invaders now saw the island as open season. So the Angles arrived, on the East coast, around North Berwick. It has to be said that the natives here fared rather better than their Southern counterparts at the hands of the Saxons, who, for example, sacked the Isle of Wight, such that not a native male Briton was left alive.
The early history of the new nation is marked with many conflicts with the English, and also the Vikings who invaded the North of Scotland. Today the Shetland Islands retain a strong Viking cultural identity. Wars with the English would dominate Scottish history for hundreds of years, until the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when the Scottish King, James VI inherited the English throne after the death of Queen Elizabeth I. In 1707, the Parliaments of Scotland and England were united, creating Great Britain.
From the 18th century, the Scottish enlightenment saw vast industrial expansion, and the rise of the city of Glasgow as a major trading port and eventually "Second City" of the British Empire. Universities flourished, and many of the great inventions of the world including television, the telephone and penicillin were invented by Scots. 20th century Scotland saw increasing calls for autonomy from London, and a Scottish Parliament was again established in Edinburgh.
Scotland's history and geography is reflected in the wide range of visitor attractions available, from castles and cathedrals, to stunning countryside, and more modern attractions showcasing Scottish cultural achievements.
Scotland has rich and strong culture, one of which its people are fiercely proud. Scotland has a great tradition of festivals, art and literature. It has produced some of the greatest literary personalities, actors and writers of the world. Irvine Welsh has made a heavy impact on the international literary scene and the prestigious Edinburgh Festival is a hotspot on international arts calendars.
Scotland has also produced some of the greatest scientists of the world including the inventors of the television, telephone and penicillin. It was Scottish scientists who invented Dolly, the cloned sheep. Scotland is known the world over for some of its seafood, vegetables and more specifically its Beef - Aberdeen Angus.
Glasgow, the largest city in Scotland, is home to a fantastic music scene; must-visits include King Tut's Wah Wah Hut (where Oasis were spotted and signed for their first record deal) and the Barrowlands Ballroom, a Glasgow institution.
There are no controls at the land border with England.
Immigration and visa requirements
Scotland has the same immigration and visa requirements as the rest of the United Kingdom.
- Citizens of the European Union do not require a visa, and have permanent residency and working rights. Citizens of the Republic of Ireland have additional rights allowing them to vote in elections.
- Citizens of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland also have permanent residency rights, but may require a work permit in some circumstances.
- Citizens of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, South Korea, Mexico, United States and Venezuela do not require a visa for visits under 6 months.
- Most other countries will require a visa, which can be obtained from the nearest British Embassy, High Commission or Consulate.
- The UK also operates a Working Holidaymaker Scheme for citizens of the Commonwealth of Nations, and British dependent territories. This allows residency in the UK for up to 2 years, with limited working rights.
- Non-EU graduates from a Scottish university may apply to remain in Scotland to live and work under the Scottish Government Fresh Talent Scheme for up to two years.
For more information of UK Immigration and visa requirements, see the UK's Home Office website 
Until recently, there were few direct international services to Scotland, meaning many travellers would have to fly into London or Manchester and then transfer to a Scottish airport on a UK domestic flight. However, there are now a growing number of European and long haul destinations served by the five international airports in Scotland:
- Aberdeen Airport, 8 miles north west of the city, has direct flights from Alicante, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Bergen, Copenhagen, Dublin, Esbjerg, Faro, Groningen, Kristiansand, Malaga, Murcia, Oslo, Palma, Paphos, Paris, Stavanger and Tenerife.
- Edinburgh Airport, 10 miles west of the city, has direct flights from Alicante, Amsterdam, Atlanta, Avignon, Barcelona, Bergen, Bergerac, Bremen, Brussels, Cologne, Copenhagen, Cork, Dortmund, Dublin, Faro, Frankfurt, Galway, Gdansk, Geneva, Hamburg, Helsinki, Ibiza, Katowice, Krakow, Madrid, Mahon, Malaga, Marseille, Milan, Munich, Murcia, New York, Nice, Oslo, Palma de Mallorca, Paris, Pisa, Poznan, Prague, Pula, Rennes, Rome, Shannon, Sharm el Sheikh, Stockholm, Szczecin, Tenerife, Toronto, Toulouse, Warsaw and Zurich.
- Glasgow International Airport, 8 miles west of the city, has direct flights from Alicante, Amsterdam, Athens, Barcelona, Belfast, Berlin, Bourgas, Calgary, Copenhagen, Dominican Republic, Dubai, Dublin, Faro, Geneva, Gran Canaria, Halifax, Heraklion, Las Vegas, Madeira, Malta, New York (Newark), Nice, Orlando, Ottawa, Palma de Mallorca, Paris, Philadelphia, Prague, Pula, Reykjavík, Sharm el Sheikh, Tenerife, Toronto and Vancouver.
- Glasgow Prestwick International Airport, situated 30 miles south west of Glasgow, is a hub of budget airline Ryanair  with domestic flights to London Stansted and Bournemouth; and international flights to Brussels, Bergamo, Budapest, Cork, Dublin, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Girona, Gothenburg, Hamburg, Kaunas, Krakow, Milan, Murcia, Oslo (Torp), Paris, Pisa, Reus, Riga, Rome, Shannon, Stockholm and Wroclaw. Be aware that there is an additional train journey of up to an hour from this airport into Glasgow city centre. Aer Arann  flys twice weekly from Donegal International Airport into Prestwick.
- Inverness Airport, situated 7 miles north east of the city.
There are many UK domestic flights operating to Scotland including:
- BMI  flights from London Heathrow, Manchester, Leeds-Bradford, and Norwich
- BMIbaby  flights from Birmingham, Cardiff and Nottingham East Midlands.
- British Airways  flights from London (Heathrow, Gatwick and City)
- Eastern Airways  flights from Birmingham, Durham Tees Valley, Humberside, Leeds-Bradford, Manchester, Newcastle, Norwich, Nottingham East Midlands, and Southampton.
- Easyjet  flights from London Gatwick, London Luton, London Stansted, Bristol, and Belfast.
- Flybe  flights from Belfast, Birmingham, Exeter, Jersey, Manchester, Newquay, Norwich and Southmapton.
- Ryanair  flights from Bournemouth, Liverpool, and London Stansted.
- Scotairways  flights from London City.
- Fly Whoosh  flights from Belfast and Birmingham.
None of the airports in Scotland, except Glasgow Prestwick, is connected to the rail network, meaning travellers have to use a dedicated bus service to the city centre, or take a taxi. However, a tram line is currently under construction between Edinburgh Airport and Edinburgh city centre, and is expected to be operational by 2011. A planned rail link for Glasgow Airport should be operational in time for the 2014 Commonwealth Games.
There are five train operators linking Scotland with England:
- National Express East Coast  operate frequent services from London Kings Cross to Edinburgh via Peterborough, York and Newcastle. Some services extend to Glasgow, Inverness or Aberdeen.
- Virgin Trains  operate frequent services from London Euston and Birmingham to Glasgow via North West England and the Lake District.
- Cross Country Trains  connect Aberdeen, Glasgow and Edinburgh to Birmingham via Leeds, Sheffield and the East Midlands. Many services continue on to Reading and the South Coast, or through Bristol to South Wales or South West England.
- Transpennine Express  operate services between Glasgow/Edinburgh and Manchester (and Manchester Airport)
- First Scotrail operate the overnight Caledonian Sleeper  trains linking London Euston with Glasgow, Edinburgh and principle destinations in the highlands. Bargain fares can be as low as £19 if booked in advance.
For further information regarding UK rail travel consult National Rail .
The main road linking Scotland and England is the M74 motorway which runs from south of Glasgow to Carlisle. The A1 road links Edinburgh and the North East of England; this road is single carriageway in some areas, however, and not considered to be the best route into Scotland. Hence the placename Scotch Corner on the A1 where traffic heading for most Scottish destinations turn to cross the Pennine hills to enter Scotland via the M74.
Bus and coach services are the cheapest way to get to Scotland, but are probably also the longest and the least comfortable. National Express  is the main operator, with services from Glasgow's Buchanan Street Station, for example, to most other major UK cities.
- Norfolk Line  have announced that they will be running a thrice-weekly service from Zeebrugge, Belgium to Rosyth, in Fife as soon as the new vessel they have ordered for the route is ready to go into service - probably April or May 2009. They expect the crossing to take 19 hours. There are currently no sailings on this route after Superfast Ferries withdrew their service in September 2008.
- Stena Line  ferries link Belfast, Northern Ireland to Stranraer in Scotland.
- P&O Irish Sea  ferries link Larne in Northern Ireland to Cairnryan, near Stranraer and Troon in Ayrshire.
- Smyril Line  runs services to Scrabster, near Thurso on the north coast, from Bergen, Norway and Torshavn, Faroe Islands.
"PlanaJourney"  is a free integrated public transport journey planner that covers much of the internal Scottish, Northern Ireland and UK public transport network. It includes bus, rail, Glasgow underground, Scottish ferries and flights. It can assist with planning journeys throughout Scotland and more widely to or from anywhere in the UK. Outside of Scotland and Northern Ireland the bus information is limited.
Scotland is a small country, making air travel uneconomical on most short routes. Air travel is, however, the fastest practical way to reach many Scottish West Coast islands. Be warned, as the planes used are small Saab 340s & Twin Otters, flights are often very turbulent, as Scotland is notorious for rain, wind and storms. Loganair operates many internal Scottish flights on behalf of British Airways. Flights can be booked on the main BA website . The Scottish Government own Highlands and Islands Airports which operates the remote Scottish airports. Flights are available from Glasgow International Airport to Campbeltown, Islay, Stornoway, Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands. Flights from Edinburgh Airport also operate to Inverness, Wick, Stornoway, and the Orkney and Shetland Islands. Barra's tiny airport is unique in Britain in that the runway is a beach.
The Orkneys also have the Airports Westray and Papa Westray which hold the world record for the shortest Scheduled Commercial Flight, taking a whole 2 minutes!
Westray Airport is located on Aikerness, at the north of the Orkney island of Westray. Papa Westray Airport lies to the north of Holland on the west side of the Orkney island of Papa Westray.
It should be noted that flights can be disrupted or cancelled due to weather conditions.
First ScotRail  operates the Scottish rail network, which covers most of the country. The main rail terminals are:
- Aberdeen Station- with trains to Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Inverness
- Edinburgh Waverley Station- with trains to Aberdeen, Fife, Glasgow Queen Street Station, Inverness, Perth and Stirling
- Glasgow Queen Street Station with trains to Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Fort William, Mallaig, Perth and Stirling. For trains to Inverness, change at Perth.
- Glasgow Central Station for trains to South West Scotland including Ayr, Kilmarnock and Stranraer; West Scotland including Dumbarton and Greenock; and Lanarkshire including Hamilton and Lanark.
- Inverness Station for trains to Wick and Kyle of Lochalsh
The train services to Fort William and Mallaig from Glasgow Queen Street take in some wonderful views of the Scottish landscape, and footage from the line was used in the Harry Potter movies.
Note there are no train services to the Scottish Borders, although there are plans to re-open a former railway line to the area, running from Edinburgh.
Generally train fares in Scotland are comparable to the rest of the UK, and are more expensive than most European countries. Typical off-peak fare between Glasgow and Edinburgh is £10 return, and between Edinburgh and Aberdeen £40 return. However, for longer journeys advance purchase tickets offer competitive fares. The First ScotRail  website has details of the Central Scotland Rover and Highland Rover tickets, which offer good value for extensive travel within the areas covered by the pass. It is best to avoid peak time services between Glasgow and Edinburgh, as they are often overcrowded.
Although Scotland is not a big country, travel can take significantly longer than you may expect depending on where you're from. With the exception of motorways and dual carriageways where travel is fast and easy, road conditions in Scotland are generally below Western European standards. Beware of defects such as potholes, ruts, cracks and patches in both urban and rural roads. Many rural roads follow old horse trails and have an overabundance of bends and twists. In remote areas many roads are single track. Passing places are provided at intervals. These are marked by diamond shaped white signs labeled "Passing Place". Sometimes these are incorrectly installed as a square sign. On older less used single track roads black and white striped poles may still be used as markers. If faster traffic comes up behind you it is the rule that you should pull into a passing place and allow the other vehicle to pass. When two vehicles approach each other on a single track road, experienced drivers will both adjust their speed so as to reach the passing place at the same time and pass each other slowly, avoiding the need for either vehicle to come to a stop. You should pull in to the passing place on your left or if the passing place is on the right hand side, stop opposite it so that the oncoming car can pull into it. Many of these roads are poorly maintained and lack crash barriers, so drive carefully and never assume that it is clear around the the next bend or over the next hill. You may also find cattle grids (also known as cattle guards or Texas gates). These are used if livestock is loose in the area and should be negotiated very slowly as they can have an adverse effect on your vehicle's steering. In these areas keep your speed down and watch out for livestock such as horses, sheep, cattle and deer.
Visitors from outside the United Kingdom should take special care when driving if they are not used to driving on the left. It is easiest to slip into previous habits on unmarked rural roads. Well marked city streets should give the driver enough information to select the correct lanes. Many by-passes have been built to allow faster travel, but the visitor will miss out on some of the beautiful scenery of Scotland. In some areas road signs will indicate that the road on the next exit will re-join the main route by showing a semi-circular exit and entrance with the destination name in the middle. This allows the driver confidence to take more scenic diversions into small towns or to find a place to stop and have lunch.
The bus is the cheapest way of getting around in Scotland. You can get almost everywhere with the Citylink bus, but it is more expensive than Megabus. Megabus is a very cheap way to travel, as ticket prices start at £1 if booked weeks in advance, and rising to over £10 for peak-rate or last-minute fares. A 50p booking charge is applied to every ticket.
Megabus departs from Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness and Perth, going between these Scottish cities as well as to English destinations. Note that with Megabus you can only book online (from 45 days to 30 minutes before departure).
Citylink runs a quarter-hourly bus service between Edinburgh and Glasgow which costs £4 - you pay the driver. This service runs out of the main bus stations (Buchanan Street in Glasgow and Saint Andrew Square in Edinburgh), and the journey takes about an hour and ten minutes - some twenty minutes slower than the train, but half the price of a peak-rate train ticket.
- Citylink  - journey information and ticket sales
- Megabus  - journey information and ticket sales
A regular and extensive ferry service operates between most large islands, and across the Clyde estuary.
- Caledonian MacBrayne  is the largest ferry operator and provides services on the west coast and Clyde. Discounts are available in the form of a ticket valid on many routes for a whole month.
- NorthLink Ferries  is the state-sponsored ferry operator running services to Orkney and Shetland, from Scrabster (near Thurso) and Aberdeen.
- Pentland Ferries  and John O'Groats Ferries  provide alternative routes to Orkney from the Scottish mainland.
- Orkney Ferries  and Shetland Islands Council  operate ferry services within Orkney and Shetland respectively.
Hitch-hiking is surprisingly easy in Scotland, but better to do outside the big cities. In the Highlands you might need to wait for a long time until a car comes by. General caution must be taken.
English and Scots Gaelic are the languages of Scotland. English (sometimes spoken with a varying degree of Scottish dialect) is the everyday language spoken by all. Dialects vary enormously from region to region, and even between towns! Don't let this frighten you, however, as all Scots can speak standard English.
Scots Gaelic (Gàidhlig), meanwhile, is only spoken by around 60,000 people, mainly in the Highlands (a' Ghàidhealtachd) and the Western Islands (Eileanan) (e.g Barra). All Gaelic speakers also speak English with the exception of a possible tiny fraction of rather isolated elderly people ; the chances of meeting such a person are infinitesimally small. It is frankly unlikely such people still exist today, as even the most elderly will have had at least a basic education through the medium of English. Signs on board some CalMac ferries to the Western Islands are in Gaelic first and English second.
Scots ('Oor ain leid' lit. 'Our own language') although not an official language of Scotland, is spoken by around 1.5 million people in Scotland, throughout the whole country. As with modern English, the language evolved from Anglo-saxon. Scots is more or less intelligible to native speakers of English, especially in written form. There are debates over whether Scots is in fact a language or a dialect - in some ways it resembles Old English - and rather than actually being spoken purely, it is often found influencing informal English spoken by people in Scotland.
The Scots generally have rather poor foreign language skills, although those in tourism-related industries generally have better language skills. French, German and Spanish are the most commonly known foreign languages.
Here are some useful English words derived from Gaelic, Pictish or Old Norse:
- Aber = river mouth (Aberdeen)
- Ben = mountain (Ben Nevis)
- Burn = stream (Bannockburn)
- Cèilidh = informal celebration, party
- Firth = estuary (Firth of Forth)
- Glen = valley (Glen Coe)
- Strath = vale (Strathspey)
- Kyle = narrow strait of water, sound (Kyle of Sutherland)
- Loch = lake (Loch Ness), also fjord (Loch Linnhie) - thus not all lochs are lakes
- Lochan = small lake, pond
Scotland offers a range of products, souvenirs and memorabilia unavailable authentically anywhere else in the world. A few examples:
- 'Scotch' Whiskies
- Scottish Tartans (colourful check-woven woolen fabric) and tartan products (such as kilts). If you have a Scottish family name like McDonald or Clark, it may be worth trying to find your own family's tartan.
Visitors from outside northern Europe may find Scotland a relatively expensive country.
As in the rest of the United Kingdom, Scottish currency is Pounds Sterling (£). Scotland's three national clearing banks continue to issue their own sterling banknotes (including £1 notes, not produced south of the border). These are The Bank of Scotland, The Royal Bank of Scotland and The Clydesdale Bank. These notes are very common in Scotland, but are sometimes not accepted in shops in England (English banks, however, will exchange them for Bank of England notes). ATMs commonly dispense the Scottish notes, but bank tellers will cash travelers cheques into Bank of England notes on request. Scottish banknotes may be difficult to exchange outside the UK, where foreign banks are generally unfamiliar with the notes. If in doubt, exchange your Scottish notes for Bank of England notes before you leave the country.
As Bank of England notes are more commonly forged than their (lower-circulation) Scottish equivalents, smaller shops are sometimes wary of larger-denomination Bank of England banknotes, particularly when the note is in an uncirculated condition (as is common with sterling notes sold abroad).
Euros are accepted at a small number of highstreet stores and tourist shops, but this should not be relied upon.
Scotland is relatively expensive when compared to some other European countries. As a basic rule, the further north you venture, the more expensive it likely gets, mostly because of the difficulty and expense of supply.
The classic tourist souvenir is a kilt and everything else involving the tartan. Note that a real kilt costs about £300-400 and is made of heavy wool (so it won't reveal what you are wearing underneath even in strong winds), but most souvenir stores only offer unauthentic thin ones. If you really want a genuine kilt or full traditional outfit (Kilt,sporran,jacket, shirt and shoes) the best place to look is a clothing hire shop. These specialise in hiring suits and kilts for weddings and often sell stock at reduced prices. The traditional highland kilt is a section of cloth about 6 feet wide and 14 feet long. This is wrapped about the body then then brought up over the shoulder and pinned in place, a little like a toga. The modern short kilt was introduced during the industrial revolution to give more freedom of movement.
Whisky is also a common buy. There are huge differences in price and taste.
Cost of living
Most visitors are disappointed by the high cost of living in Scotland. Although prices in Scotland are not as bad as in the south of England, compared to the USA or most other parts of Europe basic living expenses are still high. Most goods have an additional 15% Value Added Tax (VAT) applied although this is always included in the marked price for general consumer purchases. Petrol (gasoline) has a massive 70% excise tax and 15% VAT on top of that. Costs are highest in Edinburgh and in very remote places such as Stornoway.
Petrol (gasoline) has been priced at more than £1 per litre for some time which is £4.55 per Imperial (UK) gallon or £3.79 ($7.54) per US Gallon. In May 2008, escalating prices have seen rural areas paying about £1.30 per litre. It remains to be seen if this is a permanent rise.
While Scotland has suffered from the stereotype for dreary food, things have changed now with numerous quality Indian, French, Italian and Modern Scottish options on offer. In fact, in parts of the country such as Edinburgh, it has become quite difficult to get a really bad meal.
- Cullen Skink - A hearty and delicious fish soup made from smoked haddock, potatoes, cream, and shellfish.
- Seafood-Scotland produces some of the best seafood in the world. Its langoustines, oysters, scallops, crabs, salmon and lobsters are prized by the finest chefs all over the world...and hence are mostly exported. Try half-a-dozen fresh oysters followed by langoustines in garlic butter mopped up with a chunk of organic bread at the Three Chimneys in Skye. Heaven on a plate. If youre lucky enough to be near the coast you can buy freshly caught seafood at very good prices just go to the docks and wait, its worth it.
- Sizzling Sirloin of Scotch Beef- The five best beef breeds in the world are Scottish, the best-known being Aberdeen Angus. The others are Highland, Longhorn, Shorthorn and Galloway. There is a vast difference between how beef cattle are raised for the lower-cost end of the market and the top end of the market. Slap a sirloin of Aberdeen Angus on a hot grill and find out why.
- Game- Scotland has game aplenty, from pheasants to venison. An inexpensive Highland autumn favourite is pheasant layered with a few strips of bacon and baked with seasonal vegetables.
- Haggis - Scotland's national dish does sound quite disgusting to foreigners because of its ingredients, but doesn't really taste as bad as one might think. Haggis is made up of chopped heart, liver and lungs of a sheep and then cooked in a sheep's stomach bag. Nowadays, you can buy and cook Haggis in plastic bags. It is served with turnips and mashed potatoes (often referred to as "neeps and tatties").
- Porridge is an oat meal the Scottish eat at breakfast, usually with salt as topping, although it is not the everyday breakfast anymore.
- The square sausage another common breakfast favourite -- it is a flavoured thin square of beef (steak sausage) or pork (lorne sausage), fried or grilled, often served in a roll.
- Scotch Pie is a much-loved local delicacy. Originally containing mutton, but now usually made with an undefinable meat. Good ones really are good - slightly spiced and not greasy. Try one from a branch of the ubiquitous Greggs bakery shops.
- Scotch tablet is another local delicacy. It is, very similar to fudge - but is slightly brittle due to its being beaten for a time while it sets! Great for any cold hikes you may be planning.
- the Deep Fried Mars Bar, regarded by many as an urban myth, does exist in Scotland. An NHS survey reported that roughly 22% of fast food joints and fish and chips shops in Scotland sell the item, at roughly 60 pence a go, mainly to school children and young adults. You will have to ask them to put one in the fryer, though. A chippy in Stonehaven claims to be the birthplace of this, er, "delicacy." Another equally improbable artery-clogging treat is deep-fried pizza.
Vegetarian food isn't as hard to find as you would think, with virtually all restaurants and cafés offering more than one vegetarian option. Vegan food is harder to find, but not impossible. Edinburgh especially has a good number of exceptional vegetarian restaurants.
Scotland (especially the highlands) is famous for the hundreds of brands of Scotch whisky it produces. It seems to the visitor that every village makes its own particular brand, so much so that somebody compared a tour of the highlands as being similar to "driving through a drinks cabinet"!
Bars are the places you meet people and where you have a good time. More than in other countries, bars are very lively and it is easy to get to know people when you're travelling alone. The Scottish are very welcoming, so it's not unusual that they will buy you a beer even though you just met them.
The legal drinking age is 18 years old, and many pubs and clubs will ask for ID of anyone who looks younger than mid-twenties.
- Beer - beer, especially the ales, is measured in pints. One pint equals just over half a litre (568ml). Scottish micro-breweries are doing quite well, possibly thanks to the "Campaign for Real Ale" in recent years.
- Irn Bru  - a highly popular, fizzy, bright orange-coloured soft drink that is supposed to be the best cure for a hangover (be aware that it is loaded with caffeine and is acidic enough to clean coins!). Supposedly it is made from Iron Girders (!) (To provide a balanced view however, it should also be noted that Coca Cola will clean coins as well.)
- Whisky - Scotland's most famous export (note the lack of an 'e' that makes Scotch whisky unique!).
- Mead - a honey liqueur.
Self catering holidays, in cottages or wooden lodges, in Scotland have become very popular over recent years. Many cottages are now furnished to a very high standard.
Scotland has plenty of Hostels, both the Scottish Youth Hostel Association (SYHA)  and a large and developing network of Independent Hostels. Some of the buildings are very impressive, like the one on Loch Lomond and the Carbisdale Castle Hostel. The SYHA traditionally involved guests performing chores and a ban on alcohol. The new breed of independent hostels have eschewed these concepts, causing the SYHA to loosen up its attitudes too.
Camping is another inexpensive way of touring Scotland, though the unpredictable weather makes it less appealing than in some other countries. In remote areas camp sites can be a significant distance apart so buy an up to date guide and plan your route. Booking is not usually necessary except in peak season. Generally, the rule is the more remote the camp site, the better the scenery and the lower the cost. Some camp sites may only provide basic amenities. Camping rough is possible in remote areas, but observe local signs, and never camp next to a stream that could rapidly become swollen by overnight rain. Midges (tiny biting insects) can be a particular nuisance during August and September: the insects are harmless but incredibly irritating.
Bed and Breakfast accommodation is widely available, even in remote areas and some very good deals can be found. Many people consider these to be more friendly and welcoming than a hotel. Local tourist information centres will help you find a room for the same night, and you may expect to pay in the region of £25 per person per night for room and full Scottish breakfast. The Scottish Guest House and Bed & Breakfast Association (GHABBA)  have a range of Bed and Breakfasts and Guest Houses across Scotland.
The Premier Travel Inn chain of motels are widespread, with double rooms priced at around £55. In cities these are likely to prove cheaper than a hotel.
Most historic sites are maintained either by the National Trust of Scotland or by Historic Scotland. Both offer memberships (with free priority access and other discounts) for a year or a lifetime - and have reciprocal arrangements with their English and Welsh equivalents. Depending on how much you get around and how long you are staying, they may well be worth buying... Membership also contributes to the sites' preservation and new acquisitions.
- Historic Scotland  - sites and prices, yearly membership starts at £34 adult, £65 family (properties include Edinburgh and Stirling Castles). Historic Scotland also offers a 3-day Explorer Pass
- the National Trust of Scotland  -sites and prices, yearly membership starts at £33 adult, £54 family (properties include Craigievar and Crathes Castles, numerous wilderness areas)
- Football is easily the most popular spectator sport. If you are in Scotland between mid-August and mid-May you should be able to obtain tickets for a match.
- Drive - take a Driving tour of Scotland.
- Motorcycling - Scotland has some of the best motorcycle touring roads in the world, although you'll need good weather to get the most out of them. With good surfaces, little traffic outside of the main conurbations and welcoming cafes touring is a real pleasure. It is also possible to hire a motorcycle 
- Cycling - Even though there are only a few cycle trails compared to England, Scotland makes a great cycling country as there are many roads with little traffic. See Cycling in Scotland.
- Hillwalking - Scotland is famous for hillwalking. You can try to climb all 284 Munros of Scotland  (which are mountains higher than 3000 feet / 914.4 m) and become a Munroist, or you could hike the popular West Highland Way, which stretches for 153km (95 miles). Scotland’s official National Tourist Board publishes a free Scotland Walks guide, available from their Walking site . There is also an independent site giving lots of details on over 420 routes - Walk Highlands of Scotland 
- Whisky Tour - Many of Scotland's distilleries welcome visitors and many have guided tours. Map of Scotch Whisky distilleries open to the public: .
- Golf - Scotland is the birthplace of the game of golf and home to the oldest course in the world, St. Andrews. Scotland’s National Tourist Board publishes a free guide to golfing in Scotland 
- Edinburgh Festival occurs during late July to Mid September. The Festival is an umbrella term for several festivals, including the International Jazz and Blues Festival, the Fringe Festival, and the Literary Festival. VisitScotland, the official Scottish Tourist Board, maintain a calendar of events and festivals taking place throughout Scotland 
In the bigger cities you can learn highland dancing. If you're interested in learning how to play the Scottish bagpipe, you should know that it takes about one year to play on an actual bagpipe for the first time. It is really more difficult than it looks like and needs daily practice!
If you are interested in learning more about Scotland you can visit Talk Scotland .
The regulations governing who can work in Scotland is the same as for the rest of the UK. Citizens of the European Union, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland have permanent work rights in the UK. Citizens of Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, or Slovenia may need to to register under the Worker Registration Scheme. Generally the citizens of other countries will require a visa to work for more than six months in the UK. However, the UK has low unemployment, making it easier for those with specialist skills to gain working visas. A general shortage of skilled labour in the health sector means the British health service actively recruits abroad, making it easier for those with specialist health care skills to work in the UK. The Scottish Government is also keen to attract immigrants to Scotland to plug a perceived declining population.
The UK does operate a working holiday programme, for citizens of Commonwealth countries which allow residency and limited work rights for 2 years.
For more details see the British Home Office's visa and immigration website .
In any emergency call 999 or 112 (from a land-line if you can) and ask for Ambulance, Fire, Police or Coast Guard when connected.
Visitors to Scotland are unlikely to experience any crime. Petty crimes such as thefts and pickpocketing are lower than in many other European countries, but vigilance at all times is required, especially in crowded areas. Violent crime is a problem in inner city urban areas. However most violent crime occurs amongst gangs, thus, violent crime against tourists is rare in Scotland. Crime rates vary greatly from urban to rural areas. Like with the rest of the UK, you should approach clubs and bars at night with caution, especially around closing time when drink fuelled violence occurs, the best thing to do is use common sense and avoid any fighting.
Edinburgh can be considered a safe destination for visitors, but like all major cities there are problems and areas best avoided. Some of the city's suburbs are best avoided by tourists who are not familiar with the area. Crime is a common feature of nearly every large city in the UK, and Edinburgh is no exception.
Despite Glasgow's reputation for being a violent place, in practise Glasgow is not that bad provided you use common sense. Unlike many cities where tourist havens and dangerous areas can be seamlessly separated by a single block, due to Glasgow's layout it is near impossible to accidentally wander into one of the "less desirable" parts of town unless you were making a conscious effort to do so. If you do wish to visit Glasgow, it would be best avoided during the (Old Firm) Rangers v Celtic derby day, as the city becomes divided and can have a very unpleasant atmosphere about it, which does not make it a good place to be for an outsider.
In rural areas, especially the Highlands and Islands, Perthshire and Scottish Borders, crime is significantly lower. It is, of course, advisable to be cautious at night, as in any town or city.
English visitors will find a warm welcome despite traditional rivalries, thus proving the myth that it's not safe to have an English accent in Scotland is indeed just that. They should of course expect a bit of - generally good-natured - teasing whenever either Scotland or England are playing football. The Scots can be generalised as a friendly group and it's unlikely that a foreigner will be treated with anything other than great respect and kindness, and those from south of the Border are no exception.
Driving in Scotland is considered relatively safe, but general caution applies.
When hillwalking, you should always take along a compass, detailed maps, waterproof clothing, a torch (flashlight), and a good pair of boots. A charged mobile phone can be a lifesaver as some mountain areas have cell coverage, but networks like T-Mobile and Orange don't cover the Highlands very well. The weather on the hills can change suddenly, with visibility falling to just a few metres. If hillwalking alone tell someone where you are going and when you expect to be back.
Beware of Midges! Large clouds of these small, irritating insects can form anywhere damp, especially in august/september. They will bite, which can prove to be very itchy and uncomfortable - although they do not carry disease.
Weather in Scotland is often wild, and it rains an awful lot! Low lying mist causes regular problems in the Highlands, and sometimes in the Other Areas. Those who have experienced difficulties breathing should carry an inhaler at all times. Thunderstorms are a common thing in Northern Scotland, and general precautions should be taken.
In case of emergency, call 999 or 112 from any phone.
More advice is available from the Mountaineering Council of Scotland 
Tap water in Scotland is safe to drink everywhere, though in some areas it can be heavily chlorinated. If you find it is not to your taste then local and international brands of bottled water are available from supermarkets.
Call Scots, Scottish, not Scotch. Comments about kilts, bagpipes and ginger hair, and attempts to imitate a Scottish accent will be usually interpreted as an attempt to mock, so avoid them unless that is your intention. Also avoid talking about the film "Braveheart" as if it were a part of what being Scottish is all about. Most Scots view this film as inaccurate and fictional and will not take kindly to being associated with it.
Scotland has been a part of the United Kingdom for over 300 years, although in recent times it has enjoyed a good deal of autonomy. Most Scots are fairly easy going and will be quite happy to let you know about how the country/region (depending on one's point of view) differs from the rest of the UK.
Another issue which can cause bother is sectarianism, enforced by the rivalry between various football clubs. It would not be advised to openly wear the colours/shirts of football clubs on match days as this may cause offence, this is a problem mainly confined to the teams Glasgow Celtic and Glasgow Rangers, although a lot of supporters of these teams live all over Scotland.
In Scotland homosexuality can be frowned upon, outside of Edinburgh, Glasgow and other large cities. Flamboyance is not a common sight in public, and anyone who is may be laughed at or even, on a rare occasion, given an insult. There have been homosexual-related attacks in recent years, all though these are extremely rare. If you are a gay traveler, it is best to be subtle when in public.
See the UK contact entry for national information on telephone, internet and postal services. See Contact entries under individual cities for local information.
This page was last edited at 22:31, on 21 March 2009 by Anonymous user(s) of Wikitravel. Based on work by Ian Sergeant, Peter Fitzgerald and email@example.com, Anonymous user(s) of Wikitravel and others.