North Korea (officially Democratic People's Republic of Korea or DPRK)  is a country in East Asia. It occupies the northern half of the Korean Peninsula that lies between Korea Bay and the East Sea, also called the Sea of Japan. It borders China to the north, Russia to the northeast and South Korea to the south.
Tourist travel to North Korea is only possible as part of a guided tour. Independent travel is not permitted. If you are not prepared to accept limitations on your movements and behavior, you should not travel to the DPRK at the present time. On the other hand, travel in the DPRK is, if nothing else, a unique experience.
- Chagang Province
- North Hamgyŏng
- South Hamgyŏng
- North Hwanghae Province
- South Hwanghae Province
- Kaesŏng Industrial Region
- Kangwŏn Province
- Kŭmgang-san Tourist Region
- North P'yŏngan Province
- South P'yŏngan Province
- Rasŏn (Rajin-Sŏnbong)
- Shinŭiju Special Administrative Region
- Ryanggang Province
- P'yŏngyang - the capital city and the former capital of Goguryeo during the Three Kingdoms period
- Chongjin - Industrial city in the North East, very rarely visited by tourists
- Kaesong - former capital during the Goryeo dynasty
- Wonsan - East coast port city rarely visited by tourists
- Nampo - industrial centre and port city on the western coast
- Kumgangsan — the scenic Diamond Mountains, accessible on tours from the South
- Myohyangsan — the Mysterious Fragrant Mountain is one of the North's best hiking spots
- Paekdusan — the tallest mountain in Korea and the Kim dynasty's mythical birthplace
- Panmunjom — the last outpost of the Cold War in the DMZ between South and North
In 1910, Korea was annexed by Japan. An exploitative and brutal Japanese occupation lasted until 1945 when Japan was defeated by the Allied Forces ending World War II in the Pacific. Based on an agreement between the Allies, the Korean peninsula was divided along the 38th parallel to facilitate the surrender of Japanese forces. The Soviet Union and the United States occupied the northern half and southern half respectively. Unfortunately the two states disagreed over the form an election for a unified Korea should take, and before long both sides created their own governments. The Soviet Union fostered a communist northern half under Kim Il Sung and the United States fostered a western-leaning southern half under Rhee Syngman. In June, 1950, a civil war erupted on the Korean peninsula when the North invaded the South and a United Nations force led by the United States entered the war on the South Korean side.
After nearly being driven out of Korea, on September 15-16th, 1950, Gen. Douglas MacArthur led a daring amphibious landing of the UN forces at Inchon, just west of Seoul, that dramatically turned the tables. The North was on the verge of defeat with scattered UN forces actually reaching the Yalu River border with China. But then massive Chinese forces secretly entered North Korea and launched a counterattack that pushed the UN forces back south of Seoul. The battles raged back and forth across the 38th parallel for almost three more years. In the end, little was accomplished except the death of over three million people, the vast majority Koreans. An armistice was finally agreed to in 1953 by China, North Korea and the UN forces, with South Korea refusing to sign, therefore leaving no settlement. Korea remains divided after over 60 years with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, and the Republic of Korea in the south. Kim Il-Sung ruled as dictator until his death in 1994, and his son Kim Jong-Il has ruled North Korea ever since.
The entire Korean peninsula had been economically devastated during the Korean War, but the North, which had been the industrial half of the country while the South had been the agricultural half, rapidly rebuilt its industry and took an early economic lead over the South. In line with central planning theory the North developed its own agriculture using collectivization, machinery and fertilizers relying heavily on support from the Soviet Union. This system began to unravel in the late 1970s and 1980s as the Soviet system began to falter. With the end of Soviet aid in 1991 there was no way to continue to support the agricultural systems need for fuel, fertilizer and equipment. After so many years of government mismanagement, and the bad timing of severe flooding, the North's agricultural system collapsed in the mid-1990s leading to widespread famine and death for countless North Koreans. The North finally allowed international relief agencies to assist and the worst aspects of the famine were contained. However the DPRK continues to rely heavily on international food aid to feed its population while at the same time continuing to expend resources on its "songun", or "military first" policy based on a perceived threat by the United States.
Today the DPRK maintains an army of about 1 million men, most stationed within a few miles of the DMZ which divides the two Koreas. North Korea's long-range missile development and research into nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and massive conventional armed forces are of major concern to the international community. In December 2002, North Korea reneged on a 1994 "Agreed Framework" which required the shut down of its nuclear reactors, expelling UN monitors and further raising fears that the nation would produce nuclear weapons. Missile testing, last conducted in 1998, continued in July 2006, and in October 2006 North Korea announced that it had conducted its first nuclear test. These actions have led to UN and other international sanctions.
Current negotiations, most notably the "Six-Party Talks" involving China, Russia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and the United States, are aimed at bringing about an end to the DPRK nuclear weapons program, in hopes that a peace treaty to officially end the Korean War may finally be agreed upon, paving the way for the opening of diplomatic ties between North Korea and the United States.
In North Korea, the vast majority of people are Korean. There are also a few hundred foreigners to be found, however, most of them are fellow tourists. Because of the lack of immigration, North Korea is one of the most ethnically homogeneous nations on earth.
The climate is temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer. Late spring droughts are often followed by severe flooding. There are occasional typhoons during the early fall.
Mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east. Mountainous interior is isolated and sparsely populated.
Visiting North Korea is a bureaucratic nightmare, and your every move will be monitored by your guides. There are those who have called for a boycott on tourism to North Korea, due to human rights abuses in the country or how tourism may help finance the government. There is no official free enterprise activity in North Korea, and all tourist facilities are state-owned so the money goes directly to the government of North Korea. Others cite the possible benefits of Westerners engaging with North Korean citizens, particularly in a positive, friendly manner (i.e., contrary to the stereotypes of Westerners presented by internal propaganda) — although your guides will generally do their best to stop you from actually meeting any ordinary citizens. Ordinary North Koreans are forbidden to interact with you without authorization from the government. Regardless of political beliefs, North Korea is generally acknowledged to be a unique place to visit. The traveller must make his or her own mind up about the rights and wrongs of visiting the country.
Citizens of South Korea are normally not permitted to visit North Korea except the special tourism zone in Kumgang and now on tours to Kaesong. In addition, there have been reports of difficulties regarding Israeli, American, and Japanese nationals. Citizens of all other countries will need a visa, which will only be issued after your tour has been booked, approved by the North Korean authorities and paid for. Journalists (or those suspected of being journalists) require special permission, which is quite difficult to obtain. The North Koreans do not allow "journalists" to visit the country on tourist visas. A specialist North Korean travel agency can help you sort out the complex and ever-changing regulations. North Korea will rarely in practice refuse a visa to a tourist who meets the various requirements.
North Korea can only be visited by an organized tour, but this can be a large group or a party of one. Prices start from around $380/€300 for a 5-day group tour including accommodation, meals and transport from Beijing, but can go up considerably if you want to travel around the country or "independently" (as your own one-person escorted group). Tour operators/travel agencies that organize their own tours to North Korea include:
- Adventure Korea  - Seoul
- Asia Pacific Travel, Ltd.  - Chicago
- DPRK Travel  - Toronto, Beijing
- Geographic Expeditions  - San Francisco
- Go&See Korea  - Seoul
- Korea Konsult  - Stockholm
- Koryo Group  - Beijing
- Lupine Travel  - Manchester
- Regent Holidays  - Bristol, UK
- Universal Travel Corporation  - Singapore
- Viatjes Pujol  - Spain
- VNC Asia Travel  - Netherlands
- Young Pioneer Tours  - Canada, Hong Kong
Most people travelling to North Korea will travel through Beijing and you will probably pick up your visa from there (some agents arrange their visas elsewhere beforehand though). The North Korean consulate building is separate from the main embassy building at Ritan Lu, and can be found round the corner at Fangcaodi Xijie. It is open on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 0930-1130 and 1400-1730, and on all other days except Sundays from 0930-1130. Bring your travel permission, US$45 and two passport photos.
Your guides will take your passport and keep it during your stay in North Korea, or at least for the first couple of days of your tour, for "security reasons". Make sure your passport looks decent and doesn't differ from the most common passports from your country. North Korean immigration may get suspicious and demand a "fine" or keep your passport when you leave if they don't like what they see.
Visa-free entry from South Korea
There is one place in North Korea that can be visited without needing a normal North Korean visa:
- Panmunjom (Panmunjeom), the jointly controlled truce village in the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) dividing the two Koreas, has regular one-day bus tours from Seoul.
Until 2009, visa-free (or, rather, special group visa) tours were possible to two other places in North Korea — however, at time of writing, these have been suspended until further notice.
- Kaesong (Gaeseong), open to day-long group bus tours from Seoul organized by Hyundai Asan.
- Kumgangsan (Geumgangsan), accessible by group bus tours from South Korea organized by Hyundai Asan. There are daily buses from Seoul to Hwajinpo, the marshaling area for tourists, who then go by special buses through the DMZ to Kumgang. Tours are normally 2 days-1 night, or more appropriately for foreign travelers, 3 days-2 nights.
All three locations are (were) accessible to Americans, South Koreans, and most other nationalities, although a different list of restricted nationalities applies for Panmunjom (see article).
Hyundai Asan was planning to open up tours to Paektusan (Baekdusan), called Changbaishan on the Chinese side of the border, involving a charter flights from Seoul to Samjiyeon near Mt. Paektu, with the rest of the tour by bus and on foot. These never materialized though, so for time being, your options are to visit the Chinese side of the mountain (no special permits required) or add it as an expensive add-on to a standard North Korea tour.
North Korea's sole airline, Air Koryo , currently has scheduled flights from Beijing, which depart at 11:30 every Tuesday and Saturday, and return from Pyongyang at 09:00 on the same days. Air Koryo also flies to and from Shenyang in Northeast China every Wednesday and Saturday, and to Vladivostok every Tuesday morning.
Air Koryo is the only 1-star (worst) airline on Skytrax's list  and has been banned in the EU due to concerns over safety. The Air Koryo fleet consists largely of Soviet-made aircraft built between 1965 and 1990, plus the pride of their fleet, a 2008 Tupolev Tu-204, which now usually handles the core Beijing–Pyongyang route. Otherwise, you'll most likely end up on one of their four Ilyushin IL-62-Ms (1979-1988 vintage), but Air Koryo also flies Tu-154s dating back to the seventies and Tu-134s from 1983.
The only other airline with scheduled service to North Korea is Air China, which flies thrice weekly from Beijing to Pyongyang. Both Aeroflot and China Southern no longer fly to North Korea.
Train K27/K28 connect Pyongyang to Beijing in China via Tianjin, Tangshan, Beidaihe, Shanhaiguan, Jinzhou, Shenyang, Benxi, Fenghuangcheng, Dandong and Shinuiju four times a week. There is only one class on the international train between Beijing and Pyongyang: soft sleeper. It can be booked at the station in Beijing, but reservations must be made several days in advance. Your tour agency will usually do this for you, unless you are travelling on work purposes. It has been increasingly difficult to book space on the Beijing–Pyongyang route, so confirm your tickets well in advance.
Once a week train K27/K28 also conveys direct sleeping cars from Moscow via China to Pyongyang and vice versa. The route is Moscow - Novosibirsk - Irkutsk - Chita - Kharbin - Shenyang - Dandong - Shinuiju - Pyongyang. Departure from Moscow is every Friday evening, arrival at Pyongyang is one week later on Friday evening. Departure from Pyongyang is Saturday morning, arrival at Moscow is Friday afternoon.
There is also a direct rail link into Russia, crossing the North Korean/Russian border at Tumangan/Khasan. This route is served by a direct sleeping car Moscow - Pyongyang and vice versa and runs twice monthly (11th and 25th from Moscow), arriving Pyongyang 9 days later. However, since the mid-nineties this has not been an officially permitted route for tourists, and KITC refuses to organize trips using this route; nevertheless, some Western tourists have been successful in taking this train into North Korea.
There is an unscheduled cargo-passenger ship between Wonsan and Niigata, Japan. Only available for use by some Japanese and North Korean nationals, the boat service has been suspended indefinitely due to North Korea's reported nuclear testing; Japan has banned all North Korean ships from entering Japanese ports, and has banned North Koreans from entering the country.
All your transport needs will be dealt with by your tour company. Most of the time this means buses, although tour groups visiting remote sites (eg. Paekdusan, Mount Chilbo) occasionally use chartered flights by Air Koryo.
A carefully stage-managed one-station ride on the P'yŏngyang metro  is included on the itinerary of most trips to Pyongyang, but use of any other form of local public transport is generally impossible.
The official language is Korean. Note that North Koreans are quite picky about referring to Korean as Chosŏnmal, not hangukmal. Unlike South Korea, North Korea has abolished Chinese hanja characters and uses hangul characters, known as Chosŏn'gŭl, exclusively.
Your guides will speak fairly decent and understandable English (some better than others) and will translate something if you wish.
In 2002 Foreign Exchange Certificates (FEC) were abolished and along with them went all the different colored currencies. Now there is just the standard North Korean won, which officially trades at 175 or so to the euro. Black market rates (especially in northern China near the border) are more favorable, but importing or exporting Korean won is strictly forbidden. Conversely, were you to sneak out some won, they are practically worthless outside the country, but make unique souvenirs.
In reality, foreigners are expected to use Euros or as an alternative Chinese RMB, US Dollars or Japanese Yen. Getting the local money is possible, but it is difficult to use as the shops all want foreign currency. Currency handling is often bizarre, with a frequent lack of change and a number of rule-of-thumb conversions leading to highly unorthodox transactions. So be sure to bring lots of small change. On the other hand, since you will already have paid in advance for your hotel, transportation and meals, your only expenses will be bottled water, souvenirs, snacks, drinks at the bars, laundry at the hotel (which is as expensive as in Europe) and tips for your guides.
There are numerous hard-currency only souvenir shops at tourist sites. Interesting souvenirs include propaganda books and videos, postcards and postage stamps. At some tourist sites (such as King Kongmin's tomb), you can purchase freshly finished paintings with your name and the artist's name at the bottom. And if you are very lucky you might be able to get hold of some socialist realism paintings, although customs officials are not keen on these things going out of the country, so do beware.
On the tour to Kaesong tourists are warned not to purchase anything that could be construed as North Korean propaganda including any images of North Korean leaders such as stamps or postcards. No biographies or books are permitted back across the DMZ. This is a South Korean restriction. The stores however, will be happy to sell such things to you.
You are, however, allowed to buy post cards and send them to yourself in the US or any other country except South Korea which we are told would not deliver them.
Some excellent paintings on silk or linen were available in Kaesong directly from the artist. Haggling for price is not permitted but the prices are very low anyway.
You will pay for most things up-front as part of your tour. Most sights have a shop associated with them where you can buy bottled water, souvenirs and snacks. These are reasonably priced. In August 2007, large bottles of local beer cost US$2 at the hotel bars in Pyongyang. If you haven't planned on spending money on gambling at the casino at Yanggakdo Hotel, 200 euros for one week should be enough to cover your costs of water, drinks at the bars, souvenirs and tips for the guides.
Despite severe food shortages in North Korea, you are unlikely to have any problems getting food. Your guide will order all your food for you, and you will eat in hard-currency only restaurants. Vegetarians, and people with food allergies/dislikes of common foods such as seafood or eggs will need to make arrangements in advance. A visit to a "real" local restaurant may be possible; enquire with your guide. Note that although your food is better than what the majority of the population eats, it's still not necessarily great. Shortages combined with the typical use of Korean cooking styles mean that there is a relatively limited variety of food, which can get wearying on tours of more than a few days.
The local speciality is insam-ju, Korean vodka infused with ginseng roots. Locally made Taedonggang beer is very good (brewery imported from Ushers in the UK) and some of the Sojus are not bad either. Local alcohol is inexpensive; a 650mL bottle of beer is 0.5 euro. However do not get drunk and cause trouble. Toe the line and show respect, or you and your guide will face serious penalties.
When it comes to water, stick to bottled water, as other under-developed countries, the water is not treated.
This is likely to be your principal expense while in North Korea. You may only stay at "designated tourist hotels", for which you will need to pay in hard currency. There may be discounts if you ask for lower class accommodation, if you are travelling as part of a group, or if it is low season (November – March). Costs for your tour, which will include accommodation, all sightseeing activities and meals, will range from US$70 – US$200 a day, depending on these factors.
Usually, you pay for all your meals, hotel and Beijing–P'yŏngyang journey to your tour operator before you leave. One week in high season at a four-star hotel will then cost something between 1300 and 1600 euros, depending on your tour operator. See e.g. VNC Asia Travel , Koryo Tours , Korea Konsult  and Regent Holidays . Depending on the rate of the U.S. dollar, it might also be worth checking out the American tour operator Asia Pacific Travel, Ltd. ,or the Asian based Canadian company Young Pioneer Tours , where you might get as low as 800 euro for one week.
If you are interested in teaching in North Korea, you may find success by contacting the North Korean UN Mission in New York, or contacting a North Korean university directly. Your odds of success are, however, quite low: there are only 3 foreign English teachers in DPRK, all provided by the British Council and all work at Kim Il Sung University.
Crime levels are practically zero, at least to tourists on a strictly controlled tour. However, pickpockets are the least of your worries. The authorities are very touchy, and you need to watch what you say and how you say it. Just do what the guides do, praise every stop on your tour, and remember the "if you can't say anything good, say nothing at all" rule. Also, the official policy is that you are not to wander around on your own. You are expected to get permission and/or have a guide accompany you if you are leaving your hotel on your own. This will vary some depending on what hotel you are in. The Yanggakdo Hotel is on a island in the middle of the Taedong River in Pyongyang. Therefore you can walk around the area a little more freely than if you are at the Koryo Hotel right in the center of town. You should always be friendly and courteous to your guides and driver who will normally reciprocate by trusting you more and giving you more freedom. Regarding taking photographs, one needs to exercise restraint, caution, and common sense. If you appear to be looking for negative images of North Korea the guides will not be happy and will tell you to delete any questionable images. In particular you are not to take photos of anything military, including personnel, or to take photos that would show the DPRK in a bad light. Try to recognize a good photo opportunity, raise your camera at a reasonable speed, compose and take the picture, and lower the camera at a reasonable speed. Try not to spend overly long times composing a perfect masterpiece, or make fast, or furtive motions. This will only call attention to yourself and the image you are trying to take and can result, whether justified or not, in your being told to delete the image.
Drinking water is untreated and there are reports of foreigners being hospitalized in the DPRK after drinking the water, sticking to bottled water is highly recommended. Medical facilities are clean, but outdated and often lacking in basic supplies, and if you fall ill you might be better off returning to China for treatment. Contact your embassy or consulate in North Korea (if your country has one) for assistance. US citizens may contact the Swedish Embassy in Pyongyang for advice if needed.
It is important to emphasize that the government of the DPRK -- in particular the leaders Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il -- are very highly revered in North Korean culture. While slavish devotion is not necessary (at least for tourists, although the more praise you shower on them the better), insulting them in any way is illegal and will get you and (much more so) your guides into trouble. In North Korea 'in trouble' does not mean a slap on the wrist - North Korea is renowned for very harsh punishments extending (for the guides) from fines to lengthy prison sentences or even death.
Bringing gifts like cigarettes for the men, both guides and the driver, and donuts or skin cream for female guides, etc. is a nice gesture. Other good presents for guides are chocolate, instant coffee and powdered milk. Do not give anything to the local North Koreans or even try to speak to them without permission from your guides. Please be respectful toward your guides, especially since North Korean guides are known to occasionally take tourists whom they trust well enough to see other places and events in North Korea that they wouldn't ordinarily go to.
Most, if not all, tour groups to the DPRK are asked to solemnly bow on one or two occasions in front of statues of Kim Il Sung when visiting monuments of national importance. This is what the North Koreans do but you do not have to bow if you don't want to. Just standing in a respectful manner, or nodding your head can be sufficient. Just be sure you always act in a respectful manner around images of the two leaders.
Any trouble you cause as a tourist will likely be blamed on your tour guide's inability to control you, and he or she will bear the brunt of the penalties.
Other than your tour guide, you will likely not meet anyone else in your trip who speaks English; a few Korean words and phrases are a nice internationalist gesture.
Despite the sharp political difference, North and South Koreans generally share a common culture; the various tips in the South Korea article under respect (such as using two hands to pour drinks) will also help here.
Given the complexity of obtaining a visa to the DPRK all those contemplating travel to North Korea should contact the nearest North Korean Embassy or Consulate, or a reputable North Korean tour operator for specific entry requirements.
Mobile phone coverage is non-existent in North Korea, as the government has banned the use of mobile phones in the country, and your guides would usually demand that you surrender your mobile phones to security at the airport. There is a rumour that Pyongyang has a mobile phone network, but it is not available to the public and can only be used by senior party officials. Near the border with China, you might be able to make use of the Chinese networks, though doing so is illegal.
Foreign Embassies/Missions in Pyongyang
Practically all foreign embassies in Pyongyang are inside the Munsu-dong diplomatic compound.
- H.M British Embassy to DPR Korea, Munsu-dong Diplomatic Compound, Pyongyang, +850 2 381 7980 (International dialling) (0) 2 382 7980 (Local dialling) There is a Duty Officer rota for out of hours emergencies - to contact use international dialling (+850 2 381 7985 Fax International dialling) email:firstname.lastname@example.org. GMT:Mon-Fri: 0000-0830 Local Time: Mon-Fri: 0900-1730.*
- Chinese Embassy, Kinmaul-dong, Moranbong District, Pyongyang, +850-2-3813116 fax: +850-2-3813425
- German Embassy, Munsu-dong Diplomatic Compound, Pyongyang, +850 2 381 7385.
- Polish Embassy,Tedonggang - Munsu-Dong, Pyongyang, D.P.R.K. phone: +850 2 381 7325, +850 2 381 7328, +850 2 381 7331 fax: +850 2 381 7634 fax/phone: +850 2 381 7637
- Swiss Embassy , Daedonggang District Munhundong, Yubo Street No. 3, Pyongyang. +850 2 381 76 45, email: email@example.com
- Swedish Embassy , Munsu-dong, Daehak Street, Taedonggang District, Pyongyang. +850 2 381 74 85, email: firstname.lastname@example.org **
* The British Embassy incorporates a minor Canadian diplomatic presence, this offers reasonable consular services to Canadian citizens
** The United States does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with The D.P.R.K, American citizens can receive limited consular help from the Swedish Embassy (usually emergencies only)
This page was last edited at 21:56, on 28 March 2009 by Colin Jensen. Based on work by Jani Patokallio, Ian Sergeant and James Brown, Wikitravel user(s) AHeneen, Anonymous user(s) of Wikitravel and others.