Namibia  is located in Southern Africa, bordering South Africa, Botswana, Angola, Zambia and the Atlantic Ocean. Formerly a colony of Germany, Namibia was administered by South Africa under a League of Nations mandate after WWI, and annexed as a province of South Africa after WWII. The South-West African People's Organization (SWAPO) launched a guerrilla war for independence in 1966, but did not gain independence until 1990.
Namibia boasts remarkable natural attractions such as the Namib desert, the Fish River Canyon Park, Etosha National Park and the Kalahari desert. Its people speak nine different languages, including some of the Khoisan languages which include the 'clicks' that present an enigma to most native English-speakers. Namibia produces some of the world's highest quality diamonds.
- Windhoek -- Namibia's capital and largest city.
- Keetmanshoop -- Small town on the rail lines and highway, jumping off point for treks in the Fish River Canyon Park.
- Lüderitz -- Colonial-era German coastal town.
- Ondangwa and Oshakati -- Twin towns in the heart of Owamboland, northern Namibia.
- Swakopmund -- Coastal town, a mecca for Namibians on holiday.
- Tsumeb -- Mining town east of Etosha.
- Tsumkwe -- rural desert town surrounded by San (Bushmen) villages.
- Walvis Bay -- Desert sports.
- Brandberg Mountains -- The highest mountain in Namibia at 2 573 m.
- Etosha National Park
- Kolmanskop -- A ghost town just outside Lüderitz.
- Waterberg Plateau Park -- Another good place to watch wildlife.
- Sossusvlei -- The most popular entry point for people wanting to visit the Namib desert.
- Skeleton Coast -- The northern coastal part of the Namib desert, named for the dozens of ships that were beached in the thick fog that is frequent where the desert meets the Atlantic.
- Spitzkoppe -- the Matterhorn of Namibia.
- Fish River Canyon Park--The second largest canyon in the world.
- Opuwo-- capital of Kunene Region and an ideal starting point for stocking up before venturing further into Kaokoland and the rest of NW Kunene.
- Kaokoland - home to the Himba tribe, desert elephants, desert lions, Epupa Waterfalls and many more attractions in this north-western corner of Namibia.
Inhabited from the dawn of time by the San, also known as the "Bushmen", invaded by the Bantu, colonized by the Germans (who called it "South West Africa") and taken over by South Africa after WWI, Namibia is in many ways quite similar to South Africa. Since it was ruled under the apartheid system, Namibia also has many of the problems resulting from that system.
It is important to be aware that race is a common part of Namibian discourse. That is to say, Namibians will refer to the race of others more frequently than travellers from places where race is typically not an issue, would expect. Because of apartheid, race is an issue in many spheres of life, so it comes up a lot. In spite of this, the various races do get along well in Namibia, and it is fairly uncommon to find racial tensions flaring. Apartheid was never implemented as strictly in Namibia as in South Africa, so racial tensions are generally lower.
Namibia is similar to South Africa, and if you're used to travelling in one country, travelling in the other country is quite easy. There are some subtle differences. For example, in South Africa a non-white person may choose to speak English rather than Afrikaans (as a political choice) whereas among Namibia's mixed-race population (who call themselves 'colored' in Namibia and South Africa) Afrikaans is a proud part of their culture. And many people still speak German. Overlooking these differences isn't going to cause offense, but they're handy to know.
The public holidays in Namibia are:
- January 1. New Years' Day
- March 21. Independence Day
- Easter weekend. ("Good Friday", "Easter Saturday", "Easter Sunday" and "Easter Monday"): a four day long weekend in March or April set according to the Western Christian dates.
- May 1. Workers Day
- May 4. Cassinga Day
- May 25. Africa Day
- August 26. Heroes' Day
- December 10. Human Rights Day
- December 25. Christmas Day
- December 26. Day of Goodwill (Family Day)
Tourists may enter Namibia for up to 3 months.
Citizens from the following countries do not require a visa to visit Namibia: Angola, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States, Cuba, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, Singapore, Spain, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Visitors not from the above countries need to apply for a visa from the Namibian consulate in their country of origin or the Ministry of Home Affairs, Private Bag 13200, Windhoek, ☎ +264 (0)61 292-9111(fax: +264 (0)61 22-3817). .
All visitors require a passport valid for at least 6 months after date of entry into Namibia.
Hosea Kutako International Airport, located 45 minutes east of Windhoek, is the main entry point for air traffic. Air Namibia  operates flights from Frankfurt, London, Cape Town, Johannesburg, Victoria Falls and Maun to the international airport. Flights between the smaller Eros Airport and Cape Town are also available. South African Airways  and no-frills Kulula.com  operate flights from South Africa, too. See Discount airlines in Africa for more options.
There are 9 commonly used border posts with neighbouring counties:
- Oshikango(Santa Clara), ☎ +264 (0)65 26-4615(fax: +264 (0)65 26-4616).
- Ruacana, ☎ +264 (0)65 27-0290(fax: +264 (0)65 27-0010).
- Buitepos(Mamuno), ☎ +264 (0)62 56-0404(fax: +264 (0)62 56-0418). On the Trans-Kalahari-Highway, connecting the B6 and A2 between Gobabis and Ghanzi
- Mhembo(Shakawe), ☎ +264 (0)66 25-9900(fax: +264 (0)66 25-9902).
- Araimsvlei(Naroegas), ☎ +264 (0)63 28-0057(fax: +264 (0)63 28-0058). Connecting the B3 and N14 between Karasburg and Upington
- Verloorsdrift(Onseepkaans), ☎ +264 (0)63 26-9134. Connecting the C10 and R358 between Karasburg and Pofadder
- Noordoewer(Vioolsdrift), ☎ +264 (0)63 29-7122(fax: +264 (0)63 29-7021). Connecting the B1 and N7 between Keetmanshoop and Springbok
- Oranjemund(Alexander Bay), ☎ +264 (0)63 23-2756(fax: +264 (0)63 23-3483).
- Wenela(Sesheke), ☎ +264 (0)66 25-3430(fax: +264 (0)66 25-2293).
The most convenient international bus service into Namibia runs from Cape Town and Victoria Falls. There is also service from Johannesburg. See Intercape Mainliner for schedules and fares. Using a combination of buses, hitchhiking and kombis you can also get to Namibia from anywhere in Botswana.
Despite the vast distances in Namibia, most people get around by land, and not air.
Namibia's roads are very good, with primary routes paved, and secondary routes of well-graded gravel. An all-wheel drive vehicle is not necessary except on tertiary roads and the Skeleton Coast. Driving at night is very dangerous because there is a lot of wildlife on the roads. Traffic drives on the left.
Namibians often estimate the time to drive between places according to their experience driving quickly on dirt (untarred) roads. Add a third and you will arrive alive with kidneys intact!
Thrifty Car Rental  offers 24 hour car rental service for a scenic drive through Namibia, phone +264 61 220 738.
By minibus taxi
It is quite easy to get around using combies (shared or long-distance taxis). Just ask around to find out where the taxi rank is (sometimes there are several taxi ranks, each one with departures to different areas of the country). Drivers are not in the habit of overcharging foreigners.
- TransNamib, . Operates air-conditioned buses (and trains) to destinations all over Namibia via their StarLine service.
The national railway company of Namibia, TransNamib , operates trains (and buses) to destinations all over Namibia via their StarLine passenger service. Some routes available are
- Windhoek-Swakopmund-Walvis Bay
- Windhoek-Keetmanshoop (formerly also to Upington in South Africa but not any more)
- Walvis Bay-Swakopmund-Tsumeb
The StarLine scheduled service conveys passengers via special coaches hooked on the back of freight trains. These passenger coaches offer comfortable airline-style seating with air-conditioning and (sometimes) video entertainment. Vending machines provide refreshments on long journeys. StarLine, +264 (0)61 298-2032, (paxservices@transNamib.com.na, fax: +264 (0)61 298-2495).
Other rail services operating in the country are:
- Desert Express, ☎ +264 (0)61 298-2600(dx@transNamib.com.na, fax: +264 (0)61 298-2601), . The Desert Express is a luxury tourist train that traverses Namibia regularly, taking tourists to such destinations as Walvis Bay, Swakopmund and Etosha National Park. Buses are used to transport visitors from train stations to the various sights.
- Westwing, ☎ +264 (61) 221091(firstname.lastname@example.org, fax: +264 (61) 232778), . Offers both scheduled and charter flights throughout the country
English is the official language and is widely spoken. However the majority of older Namibians (those educated before independence) only speak English as a third language, and therefore the standard is fairly poor.
Afrikaans is spoken by many. German is also spoken by a large number of people of German descent, though they tend to be mostly in Windhoek, Swakopmund and various farms scattered through the country. There is a comparatively large number of eleven 'recognised' languages in Namibia, as well as others that have too few speakers to be officially recognised.
Namibia is a country with great national parks where you can see some of the finest African flora and fauna and you can see some mammals that have adapted to the extreme heat. In the northern part of the Kunene region you can see the rare desert elephants.
Namibia (along with Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland) is a member of the Southern African Common Monetary Area and as such the Namibian Dollar (NAD) is pegged 1:1 to the South African Rand (ZAR). Both the Namibian Dollar and South African Rand is legal tender in Namibia though change will usually be given in Namibian Dollars.
Banks in Namibia will convert Namibian Dollars for South African Rand and vice versa without charge or paperwork. Since any bank or currency exchange outside Namibia (including other members of the Common Monetary Area) will charge a substantial service fee to change currency, it is advisable to make use of a Namibian Bank before leaving the country.
It is also advisable to carry proof (for example ATM receipts) that money you are taking out of the country is money that you brought into the country in the first place.
Rough conversion rates (Jaunuary 2009) are: 10:1 (USD), 13:1 (EUR) and 15:1 (GBP). Current official exchange rates are available from the Namibian Central Bank 
Automated teller machines are available in Windhoek, Swakopmund, Luderitz, Tsumeb, and other towns and cities. It is best to use only teller machines that are inside a mall or other building. Always be careful to make sure no one is watching you enter your PIN, and be vigilant about typical scams (e.g. machines that seem to eat your card and won't give it back after you enter the PIN).
Prices in shops are fixed, but prices in open markets or from street vendors are open to barter.
Vegetarians need not apply. Namibians have a very high intake of meat. It is possible to be a vegetarian in Namibia, however, as there are some Peace Corps workers who live there for two years and remain vegetarian throughout.
- Fruits and Vegetables. you will find in Namibia include avocados, bananas, mandarin oranges, oranges, pineapples, kiwi, peanuts, beans, rice, couscous, millet, tomatoes, corn, bread, onions, pasta, potatoes, and celery. Many of these foods are imported and may be expensive and limited to seasonal availability.
- If visiting Windhoek. you will find local and international cuisine in the many diverse restaurants and cafes. Pretty much anything you want, you will find here.
Namibia's nightclubs are always happening and always open late (pretty much until the last person leaves). They are mostly located in bigger cities: Windhoek, Swakopmund and Oshakati. There are not many bars, though there is very good beer, and there are a lot of shebeens. The flagship beer of Namibia is Windhoek Lager , an easy-drinking filtered beer, not dissimilar to many German brews.
- Christel Boltman, P O Box 12 Gochas(South east from Mariental), ☎ 063250200. 18h00-22h00. 3 course gourmet dinners on red dune under the stars accompanied with staff entertainmentNS 220 pp.
Hotels and Holiday Rentals
A hotel provides accommodation to the traveling public, has a reception area and offers at least a "breakfast room" or communal eating area. In general a hotel makes food and beverage services available to a guest, though these may be outsourced or provided by the hotel.
There are a number of Hotel chains that operate nationally
- Protea Hotels, ☎ +27 (0)21 430-5000(email@example.com), . From R200 per person sharing.
- Southern Sun, ☎ +27 (0)11 461-9744(firstname.lastname@example.org), . Wide range of accommodation from budget to splurge
- * Namibia Direct, ☎ 0861 - SA - TRIP(email@example.com), . Large choice of accommodation from budget to splurge, self catering to full service hotels * iStay Information and booking desk, (firstname.lastname@example.org), . Namibian information and booking desk, highly recommended, cost me nothing and excellent service. They even called me back in Germany. Free service, free advice, and no booking fees. They also have several call-in numbers in various countries, operating 24 hours a day. (My experience)
It is extremely difficult for foreigners to get work permits in Namibia. With 40% unemployment, the government is not enthusiastic about letting people in who would take jobs from Namibians. It is possible to get a work permit to volunteer, though this requires going through the same drawn out process as the normal work permit.
Namibia is a peaceful country and is not involved in any wars. With the end of the Angolan civil war in May 2002, the violence that spilled over into north-eastern Namibia is no longer an issue.
Namibia has relatively high crime rate. See the warning for ATMs above, in the Buy section. For men it is not prudent to walk or ride taxis alone in Windhoek or Oshakati after midnight. For women, it is not prudent after 9pm. Pickpockets can be a problem. All these warnings should be taken in context, because the threat is not as serious as it might sound. If you are alert and take some common sense precautions then you will have no problems.
Travellers should have no problem visiting the townships, though it's advisable not to visit the townships alone unless you're familiar with the area. If you have been travelling in Southern Africa for a few months, you probably know what you're doing.
Namibia has a serious problem with driving under the influence of alcohol. The problem is aggravated because most people don't consider it a problem. When driving/walking on weekend evenings, be extra alert.
The HIV infection rate in Namibia is about 25%. Do not have unprotected sex!
Namibia's medical system is modern and capable of attending to whatever needs you may have. Staff are well trained and so HIV transmission in hospitals is not an issue. This applies to government and private hospitals alike, though line-ups are often shorter at private hospitals, and there have been cases of incorrect diagnosis in government hospitals.
Namibia's water supply is usually safe to drink, except where labelled otherwise. Campsites next to rivers often get their water directly from the river, so do not drink it!
Having said all this, make sure you consult a physician specializing in health issues of Southern Africa, as well as things like the Centre for Disease Control  web page. Make sure you satisfy yourself of the safety of anything you're getting into.
Namibians are very proud of their country. It is a well developed country (albeit still a developing nation) with all the modern amenities and technologies. Don't show up wearing khaki shorts and a safari hat; people will laugh. In fact, Namibians refer to this kind of tourist as The Khakis in a derogative manner. And if you ask where the 'real' Africa is (i.e., the Africa of Tarzan), Namibians may very well be offended.
It is customary when greeting someone to ask them how they're doing. It's a simple exchange where each person asks "How are you?" (or the local version "Howzit?") and responds with a correspondingly short answer, and then proceed with whatever your business is about. It's a good idea to do this at tourist info booths, in markets, when getting into taxis, even in shops in Windhoek (though it's normally not done in some of the bigger stores in the malls).
Namibia's country code is 264. Each city or region has a two-digit area code. When calling long distance within Namibia, prefix the area code with a '0'. Mobile phones are very common and run on the GSM network, using the same frequency as Europe and the rest of Africa. There are Internet cafes in Windhoek, Swakopmund and Opuwo, and hostels often have access as well.
This page was last edited at 18:55, on 22 March 2009 by Anonymous user(s) of Wikitravel. Based on work by Peter Fitzgerald, Penny George, R. Quinn, Paul Kilfoil and Nick Roux, Wikitravel user(s) Torebjorn and !!!!!adeen!!!!!, Anonymous user(s) of Wikitravel and others.