The Czech Republic ,  is a small landlocked country in Central Europe, situated south-east of Germany and bordering Austria to the south, Poland to the north and Slovakia (with which it used to form one country of Czechoslovakia) to the south-east.
The Czech Republic is divided into 3 historical regions:
- Bohemia - the western part of the Czech Republic
- Moravia - the eastern part of the country
- Czech Silesia - the north eastern part of the Czech Republic. Most of the historic country of Silesia is today in Poland.
There are 14 political regions which are subdivided into districts.
- Prague (Praha) - the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic
- Brno: Largest city in Moravia with several excellent museums. The Moto GP Grand Prix takes place here every year.
- Český Krumlov: Beautiful old town in South Bohemia with the country’s second biggest chateau
- Jeseník: Spa and mountain resort, especially popular in winter for its easy access to skifields
- Jindřichův Hradec: Beautiful old town and the third biggest chateau
- Karlovy Vary aka "Carlsbad", historic (and biggest Czech) spa resort, especially popular with German and Russian tourist groups
- Karviná: Spa close to Ostrava
- Kroměříž: Central Moravian town with remarkable UNESCO world heritage listed baroque chateau and formal flower gardens. The chateau was used in the film Amadeus and houses some of the country’s most valuable artworks
- Kutná Hora: Historical town with famous St. Barbora cathedral, old silver mines and the Chapel of All Saints, which is decorated with thousands of human bones
- Olomouc: A vibrant riverside university town with a 1000 year history and the 2nd largest historical centre in the Czech Republic. Olomouc’s rich collection of historical architecture includes the UNESCO-listed column of the Holy Trinity, six stone baroque fountains, several churches and the renaissance town hall with a 15metre high astronomical clock. Bouzov and Helfštýn castles are nearby.
- Opava: Mother of Silesia, rich and historical city in Silesia, near Polish border
- Ostrava: Third-largest city in the Czech Republic with a vibrant local subculture and long history of coal mining. The old steelworks and coalmines are not everybody’s idea of a tourist destination but it’s a fascinating and unique landscape which is accessible on guided tours. Hardhats supplied.
- Pilsen (Plzeň): Home of the original Pilsner Urquell beer, and the largest city in West Bohemia
- Znojmo: is an old royal town close to the Austrian border, with well preserved gothic architecture and the Romanesque rotunda of St Catherine from 1134. The surrounding hills are covered by vineyards and there’s also an extensive system of catacombs which is open to the public on one-hour tours.
- Český Ráj: (Czech Paradise) A region of towering rock formations and isolated castles located north-east of Prague. The gateway city of Jičín is an interesting destination in its own right, but Turnov is closer to most of the castles and rock formations. The twin towers of the ruined castle Trosky are a symbol of the area and can be climbed for the views
- Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou: A small town circa 50 km from Jihlava (towards Znojmo) with the Baroque Castle and Church of St. Margaret
- Karlštejn Castle and the holy cave monastery: Hiking trip to the famous castle as well as an off the beaten track monastery
- Krkonoše: (Giant Mountains) The highest mountains in the Czech Republic along the Polish border
- Litomyšl: A beautiful small town in East Bohemia. The renaissance main square and chateau are among the Czech Republic’s prettiest and the town has been home to many important and influential artists, including composer Bedřich Smetana, sculptor Olbram Zoubek and painter Josef Váchal. There are two international opera festivals at the chateau each year.
- Moravský Kras: Extensive karst area between Brno and Olomouc with the deepest abyss in the country and, in the Punkevní Caves, the opportunity to take a boat ride along an underground river.
- Mutěnice Wine Region: Some of the best vineyards in the Czech Republic and totally off the well beaten tourist path
- Nové Město na Moravě : Cross country skiing resort. The race of Tour de Ski takes place here.
- Telč: A small South Moravian town with a perfectly preserved Renaissance town centre which is surrounded by shallow man made lakes. The town square is surrounded by an arched walkway and colourful two-storey renaissance houses. The chateau and Church of St James are open to the public and its possible to hire rowboats from the lakeside in the warmer months.
- Terezín: A red-brick baroque fortress 70km north of Prague beside the Ohře river. It was used during WWII as a Jewish ghetto and concentration camp.
After the First World War, the closely related Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged together to form the new nation of Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Hungarians. A poor relationship with the German minority (20% of the overall population) was a particular problem that was capitalized on by Hitler and used as "rationale" for the dismemberment of the nation before the outbreak of WWII. After World War II, Czechoslovakia expelled most of its Germans and many of the ethnic Hungarians under direction of the Potsdam Conference. The country fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and remained so by force until 1989.
In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create "socialism with a human face". Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression and conservatism within the party ranks. In November 1989, the Communist government was deposed in a peaceful "Velvet Revolution".
On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Now a member of NATO (since 1999), the Czech Republic has moved toward integration in world markets, a development that poses both opportunities and risks. It has been a European Union (EU) member since 2004.
The Czech Republic is not a large country but has a rich and eventful history. From time immemorial Czechs, Germans, Jews and Slovaks, as well as Italian stonemasons and stucco workers, French tradesmen and deserters from Napoleon’s army have all lived and worked here, all influencing one another. For centuries they jointly cultivated their land, creating works, the majority of which still command our respect and admiration today. It is thanks to their inventiveness and skill that this small country is graced with hundreds of ancient castles, monasteries and stately chateaux, and even entire towns that give the impression of being comprehensive artefacts.
The Czech flag (see above) is the same one formerly used by Czechoslovakia, having been readopted in 1993.
Habits and Customs
- Easter (Velikonoce): On Easter Monday it is customary for guys to (slightly) spank girls and women with a wicker stick with colourful ribbons at the end (pomlázka), in the hope that the girls and women will in turn give them coloured eggs, candy or drinks. Girls sometimes defend themselves by pouring water on the guys. Obvious tourists are often (but not always) exempt.
- Witch Burning (Pálení čarodějnic) or Night of Witches (Čarodějnice): On the last April evening, bonfires are lit around the country. "Witch" figurines, as a symbol of evil, are made and burned in the fire. This is the reinterpretation of the old pagan festival (Beltane) influenced by Christian inquisition. Because probably most Czechs would prefer the witches over the inquisitors, in many fires no witches are burnt, and the feast is celebrated in a more original pagan way - witches are those who should celebrate the night, not be burnt. It doesn't stop jokes like "Honey, hide or you will be burnt tonight!".
- Last Ringing (Poslední zvonění) is a traditional celebration of the end of the last year at a high school. It is celebrated usually in late April or early May, a week or more before the final exams (matura or maturita in Czech) take place (the time may be different in different schools). Students get a free day and usually do silly things in silly costumes. They go to the streets and collect money from people passing by, sometimes threatening them with water. The collected money is used at a party after the exams.
- Feast of St. Mikuláš (St. Nicolaus, Santa Claus), Dec. 5: On this day, St. Mikuláš roams about with his consorts, an angel and a devil. He gives small presents and candy to children to reward them for their good behaviour throughout the year, while the devil chastises children for their wrongdoings over the course of the year and gives them potatoes, coal (or sometimes spankings) as a punishment. Old Town Square in Prague is a great place to watch the festivities.
- Christmas (Vánoce): Czechs begin celebrating this holiday on Christmas Eve and continue to celebrate until the 26th (the Feast of Stephen). Presents are placed under a Christmas tree (by Ježíšek (The Baby Jesus) as little children believe) and taken after dinner on Christmas Eve. Potato salad and carp is a traditional Christmas meal, and for this reason one can see live carp being sold out of huge tanks throughout the streets of Czech cities and towns just before Christmas.
The Czech Republic has joined the Schengen agreement, which means that you can enter on a European Union Schengen visa and there are no longer any ID/passport controls on the EU borders. Citizens of EU can stay in the Czech Republic indefinitely without a visa. Citizens of the Canada, USA, Australia, and New Zealand do not need a visa for stays of up to 90 days. Be warned that while before joining the Schengen agreement the 90 day limit for citizens of these countries was not enforced, several long-staying American citizens were recently warned to get the visa or leave the Schengen area.
Keep in mind that the ninety-day counter starts once you enter the Schengen Area, no matter where, and that normally you are not permitted a stay of more than 90 days in a 6-month period without a visa.
Other international airports are in Brno (with flights to London, Moscow, Barcelona and Prague), Ostrava (flights to Vienna and Prague), Pardubice, Karlovy Vary (flights to Moscow and Uherské Hradiště).
There are dozens of low-cost airlines going to/from Prague. Ryanair flies to Brno from London and Girona and to Prague from Dublin. Other nearby airports are Nuremberg (200 km) and Munich (320 km) in Germany, Vienna having a bus shuttle to Brno city (260 km to Prague, 110 km to Brno) in Austria, Wroclaw (200 km) in Poland (might be a good idea if you want to go to the Giant Mountains) and Bratislava – hub for SkyEurope Airlines but without shuttle (280 km to Prague, only 120 km to Brno) in Slovakia.
The easiest way to get to your hotel from the airport is praguetransfer.net , a minibus company that provides a cheap door to door service. Book your shuttle in advance at their website. If you need to get to another city from the airport, you can book at the same company's website specialized in long distance transfers to all cities in the Czech Republic. It is easy and quick to book at airportshuttle.cz 
International bus service runs from many cities in Europe with direct connections from Germany, Netherlands, Slovakia, Switzerland, Austria etc. Good service offer Eurolines  and Student Agency .
International train service runs from most points in Europe with direct connections from Slovakia, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine. If you are in Bavaria, Saxony or Thuringia, the cheapest way to get to the Czech Republic is to take a "Bayernticket", "Sachsen-Ticket" or "Thuringen-Ticket" (up to 5 people per ticket, which costs 25 EUR; only regional trains) to the border and then buy a Czech group ticket there.
IDOS  offers an exceptionally useful website with integrated timetables for all trains and buses in the Czech Republic, including all intra-city and inter-city transports. The German and English version is also available here.
There are domestic flights from Prague to Brno and Ostrava. They are operated by CSA Czech Airlines . There were also flights operated by Discovery Link, from Prague to Uherské Hradiště, but this airline stopped its flights in 2005.
A cheap and excellent means of travelling between Prague, Brno, Plzeň and Liberec are the buses from Student Agency. A line to Ostrava via Olomouc was introduced recently. Apart from this operator there are many other bus companies that link Prague and many other cities regularly. The buses leave Prague from Florenc Bus Station or Černý Most Bus Station (both are also Metro stations). Except for the Praha-Ostrava line, the buses are bit faster and cost less than the Czech trains (not considering discounts). Usually, you do not have to book a seat but if you travel on Fridays or before holidays from Prague, it is recommended. Timetables are available on the IDOS website.
Driving in the Czech Republic is not as expensive as it is in other countries, but there are specific things that must be kept in mind.
The first thing is that the Czech Republic is a zero tolerance country. It is illegal to operate a motor vehicle under the influence of any amount of alcohol, and violations are very heavily punished.
The people in the Czech Republic drive sometimes aggressively, but it is not same "madness" like in southern Europe countries for instance.
In order to drive on the well-kept motorways, however, you need to purchase a toll sticker. These stickers cost about CZK 220 for seven days (for vehicles lighter than 3.5 tonnes), but can be purchased for longer periods of time (1 month or a year). If you do not have a toll sticker on your car when you drive on the motorways, the fines can be very steep (CZK 5000 minimum).
Make certain that you purchase the correct toll sticker: there are those for vehicles under 3.5 tonnes in weight and those for vehicles between 3.5 and 12 tonnes. Vehicles larger than 12 tonnes in weight must use an on-board unit ("premid" unit) to pay tolls based on distance.
The condition of many roads is improving, but to be safe, drive on the motorways as much as possible, although if you want to get the remote parts of the country you will be forced to take bumpy side-roads sometimes.
Speed limits in the Czech Republic are usually 130 km/h on motorways, 90 km/h off of motorways, and 50 km/h in towns. Petrol is inexpensive compared to the rest of Europe (CZK 31 / 1,35€), but it is expensive compared to the United States.
Traffic fines can usually be paid on the spot.
The trains go even to the most remote locations of the Czech Republic and unlike buses, they also operate regularly during off-peak hours. However, outside the modernized main corridors, the standard of travelling is often the same as it was in the 1970's, and therefore it is quite time consuming to get to the provincial towns or villages. The trains tend to meander around the countryside and while this may sound like a nice afternoon ride, it's usually more hassle than it's worth. However, things are changing constantly and we can expect some further modernization in the near future.
Due to the complicated discount policy of the Czech Railways  (especially for foreign travellers), the standard one-way tickets are twice as expensive as the bus. However, you can get a discount for a return ticket, for group tickets (two travellers are considered as a "group") or with a special "customer" card. Especially the group discount is very useful, because you get the same fare as using the customer card (75% of standard ticket price) even for two people and from the third traveller on you pay half of the standard price.
The customer card (In-karta) costs 990 Kč and is valid for three years. This makes the trains much more useful, sometimes even cheaper than buses. Its price can be recovered quickly but it takes some time (about one month) to issue the card and you need a photograph. You have to fill in a form and add a passport photo. You will get a paper card. After one month you will get a chip card. With this card you can use the "electronic wallet". This "wallet" may be very useful. For the complete list of discounts in English visit Czech Railways' website . If you are under 26 years, you can have a "junior-card". The card costs 330 Kč for three years. With this card you will get a discount of 25%.
Categories of trains:
- Osobní - slow "local" trains, stops everywhere (abbrev. Os)
- Spěšný - faster than "osobní", usually skips little villages (Sp)
- Rychlík - fast trains, stops in major towns, relatively safe and commonly used trains for longer distances(R)
- Expres - faster and usually a bit cleaner kind of "Rychlík" (Ex)
- Intercity, Eurocity - pretty modern, clean and fast trains, stopping in major cities only (IC, EC)
- Supercity (Pendolino) - fastest new trains bought recently by Czech Railways, operates just between biggest cities, have special ticket rates (SC) (Time schedule ).
If you take Supercity (SC) Pendolino, you have to tell at the counter when you buy tickets because they do not know what kind of train you will travel with. There are extra charges for these trains mentioned above. If you are not sure, try to ask for help some younger people waiting in the queue as they should speak some English.
Between two regional capitals you can use your customer card even more efficiently. With a chip card you have the "electronic wallet". At several stations you can find a special blue dispenser. Unfortunately, it is in Czech only. Touch your card to the image of card. The dispenser will show you some options. One of them is "Tickets eLiška" (Jízdenky eLiška). Click and you will see the regional capitals. For more remote destinations (e.g. Brno - Karlovy Vary or Brno - Liberec, you will pay 160 Kč. If you paid a normal "customer price", the price would be higher. With this eLiška ticket your journey will be cheaper. Sometimes it is possible to buy the "happy eLiška" (Šťastná eLiška). This version provides you with a discount. For example, if you are lucky, you can travel from Brno to Prague only for 120 Kč. Another possibility is from Brno to Olomouc, the journey with "happy eLiška" will cost only 80 Kč. In order to pay these tickets with your "electronic wallet", you have to deposit money on your card first, which you may do conveniently at any counter at the station. Another possibility is to buy the ticket online (http://eshop.cd.cz/) and pay with a credit card, after which you may pick up your ticket at any station.
Although many train stations were repaired and modernized, the rest is still like a trip back in time to the communist era including the main station in Prague (main station in Czech is abbreviated as hl.n.). There is no need to be afraid but try to avoid them in the late night hours. Trains are generally safe (there are regular police guards assigned for fast trains) and very popular mean of transport and they are widely used both by students and commuters. Especially Prague has pretty good network of local trains connecting it with suburbs and surrounding cities and the tickets bought for these trains are valid for municipal transport. Check Prague integrated transport (PID)  (in Czech only).
Pet in train
Smaller pets in cages or bags may travel for free. Bigger dogs must have a muzzle and must be on a leash. Price is very low, only 10 Kč one way or 20 Kč for the whole day (until midnight).
The Czech Republic is an excellent place for cycling. There are lots of pleasant country lanes, cycling marked paths and picturesque villages along these paths (always with a pub...), it's easy to find the way, and the trains have bicycle racks in the baggage section for when you get tired. Try cycling in South Moravia region (close to Austrian borders) where you can find dozens of well-marked paths that will lead you through beautiful countryside full of vineyards, vine cellars and colourful villages (do not drink and drive, remember "zero tolerance" to alcohol).
Also border mountains (Krkonoše, Šumava, Jeseníky etc.) are more and more popular among mountain-bikers. There are usually no fences along the trails but always keep to the marked paths here as these mountains are "CHKO" (i.e. protected as national natural heritage) and you can be fined if you cycle "off the beaten track".
CzechCycling.info  is a non-profit website with cycling information for Prague and surrounding areas.
In addition to walking in the cities, there are a great number of hiking paths and scenery-rich trails going through the Czech Republic's forests and natural areas, and the Czech Tourist Club (Klub českých turistů) , a member of the European Ramblers Association  has mapped and marked these trails so that walkers can easily locate and navigate thousands of kilometres of scenic paths, in fact it is probably the best maintained system of marking in Europe. You can buy maps of their paths on their website , or in the Czech Republic in most bookstores, tobacco shops or museums (green maps, marked with the organization's symbol and the words EDICE TURISTICKÝCH MAP KČT 1:50000  at the top). These maps are based on military maps and very precise. It's also possible to go by train to a small village at the edge of a forest and find the on-site map of the surrounding area, and four possible paths will be visible, marked in red, yellow, green, and blue nice tourist maps . Nearby such a map will be a set of directing signs, usually posted to a tree, pointing the initial direction on any of the coloured paths. The path's colour will be marked on trees throughout the path: three short horizontal bars, the outer two white and the innermost the colour of the path you're on. This symbol at times will appear as an arrow, indicating a turn. Bus and train stops will also be indicated on signs. You can also register to become a member  of the Czech Tourist Club, where you can camp for 30–50 Kč a night in cottages around the Czech Republic.
Travelling by boat is an interesting way to get between Budapest and Prague, but be prepared to take some time because you have go through a large part of Europe, via Slovakia. The Vltava (Elbe) mouth opens into the North Sea, whilst the Danube mouth is in the Black Sea.
Hitchhiking is very common and some drivers stop even on places where they shouldn't.
Take care to use very a clear gesture with the thumb pointing upwards. A gesture looking like you are pointing to the ground may be mistaken for prostitution solicitation.
As a word of advice, if you are hitchhiking through the Czech Republic from the south to the German town of Dresden, never go to or past Prague unless you are in a ride going all the way to Dresden. Prague itself has no major and continuous beltway, so residents of the area must maneuver a ring of major and local roads to get around the city from south to north. Therefore the great majority of traffic you will encounter is going into the city. Past Prague, the previously major highway turns into a two-lane mountain road through local villages, in which again, the great majority of traffic is local and international travelers are hesitant to stop.
Try a letter-sized (A4) piece of paper with the destination written on it so it is clearly visible where you would like to go. See some other Tips for hitchhiking.
By thumb with pet
It is possible to hitchhike with smaller dog, although "waiting time" will be longer. Expect another dog in the car.
The main languages spoken are, not surprisingly, Czech and Slovak. Czech and Slovak people are very proud of their languages, and thus, even in Prague you will not find many signs written in English (outside of the main tourist areas). Many older people are also unable to converse in English, so it's good to learn some Czech or Slovak before heading off. However, most young people speak at least some English, as it has been taught in most schools since 1990. Czech and Slovak are very similar, yet distinctive languages (at first, you might think they are dialects of each other)
Most Czechs and Slovaks speak a second and often a third language. German is probably the most widely spoken second language among older people. People born c. 1935-1980 can usually speak Russian pretty well as it was taught very extensively and is mutually intelligible with Czech and Slovak to a certain extent, although the intervention of Czechoslovakia by USSR and other Warsaw Pact forces has given this language some negative connotations, even though they realise that many Soviets (not just ethnic Russians) were also against the intervention. Other languages, like German, French or Spanish, are also taught in some schools, but you should not count on it. Other languages are not so common, although people may understand other Slavic languages (Polish, Serbo-Croatian, etc). Don't expect older people to understand English outside Prague or Bratislava.
The languages are very difficult for English-speakers to grasp, as Czech and Slovak, like their sisters, can be tongue-twisting languages to learn (especially Czech) and take time and practice to master, especially if you're not really familiar with the other Slavic languages, including Russian. However, if you can learn the alphabet (and the corresponding letters with accents), then pronunciation is easy as it is always the same - Czechs and Slovaks pronounce every letter of a word, with the stress falling on the first syllable. The combination of consonants in some words may seem mind-bogglingly hard, but it is worth the effort!
The currency of the Czech republic is the koruna (crown), plural koruny or korun. The currency code CZK is often used internationally, but the local symbol is Kč (for Koruna česká). 1 koruna is made up of 100 haléř (haléřů), abbreviated to hal., but coins are only issued in whole koruna values as of October 2008.
The exchange rate is approximately 25Kč = €1, 30Kč = £1 GBP, 20Kč = $1 (US), or 16Kč = $1 (Canadian). As of 6 Nov 2008, €1 = 24.39Kč (Google)
Coins are issued in 1Kč, 2Kč, 5Kč (all stainless steel), 10Kč (copper-colored), 20Kč (brass-colored) and 50 Kč (copper-colored ring, brass-colored center; somewhat rare). Notes are issued in 50Kč (pink), 100Kč (aqua), 200Kč (orange), 500Kč (red), 1000Kč (purple), 2000Kč (olive green) and 5000Kč (green-purple). See some banknote samples . Be aware that all 20Kč banknotes, haléř coins, and older-style 1000Kč and 5000Kč banknotes from 1993 are NOT legal tender.
Some major stores (mainly bigger chains) will accept Euros, and it's also fairly common for accommodation providers to quote the price in Euros.
Never exchange money on the street. There is no "black market" with better rates, but there is a good chance you'll end up with a roll of worthless paper. Be very careful when you are exchanging money at a small exchange kiosk. They try to use tricks in order to give you a bad exchange rate. Ask for the total amount you will get and recompute it by yourself. Do not trust "0% commission" in big letters signs (usually there is "only on CZK buy" amendment in small letters). On this  website you can get good overview of reliable exchange places and rates.
Major stores throughout the country accept Visa and EC/MC, as do all the tourist stores in Prague.
- See the Moravian wine region by horseback in Novosedly
- See Brno city
- See Český Krumlov - beautiful city with castle. Member of UNESCO.
- CzechTek, the yearly freetekno party somewhere in Czech Republic.
- Giant Mountains
How they live
Entering Prague on the train, particularly from the southeast, one sees the infamous panelaks, or giant concrete housing blocks. Czech and Slovak housing blocks have a very surreal quality to them - driving past the Brno suburbs late at night is visually reminiscent of the movie Blade Runner. Petrzalka in the Slovak capital of Bratislava is the biggest panelak complex. Czech writer Iva Pekarkova’s novel "Truck Stop Rainbows" does an amazing job of expressing the particular sort of inhumanity panelaks are known for breeding. If someone lives in a building that is an exact copy of all the others for miles around, so alike that even residents get lost, what does that bode for the community living there? In a particularly ironic twist, the real-life panelaks are crumbling as quickly as the communist regime that built them: literally falling apart at the seams.
If you end up in Panelaks be aware that the elevators are not likely to be kept up and may be prone to missing a door, or to stopping at the designated floor but will not open to let you out. If a door is missing there may be some minimal caution exercised by the residents in the form of a baby gate placed inside the elevator. If the elevator looks shifty, take the stairs. Yes, even if your friend lives up on the 15th floor.
Alternatively though the Panelaks in contrast to what one finds in Western European or American housing projects, are relatively safe and friendly places albeit it bland. The dark exterior shell hides a generally quite nice internal environment that is usually well maintained by the inhabitants living inside. The majority of people who live there are a cross section of the lower to middle classes of Czech society (including a large number of students and retired elderly people). Haje in Prague at the end of the red (C) metro line is well worth the half hour metro trip to experience a real live communist 'settlement.'
On the bright side, recently more flats in these panelaks have been being bought, changing these developments from Communist compartments into owned and cared-for properties. Unlike in Western Europe, panelaks in the Czech Republic are being lived-in and owned increasingly by the middle class, which tries to paint them lively colours and individualize their appearance inside and out. Some residents in such buildings don't find them isolating at all, and on the contrary feel that they foster a communal atmosphere.
Czech Republic has an excellent and sophisticated system of trail blazing, marked trails are about everywhere. Choose an area, buy a hiking map for the area (best brand is "Klub českých turistů", 1:50000 military based maps covering the whole country, available in most large bookstores) and go. See: Hiking_in_Czech_Republic.
Many places in the Czech Republic are great for swimming, and there are many designated public swimming areas (called koupaliště). A list of places suitable for swimming is available here: . However, be aware that in hot weather the quality of the water in some places can fall below EU standard regulations.
Although the Czech Republic is a land-locked country, it does have a lot of nudist/naturist beaches near lakes. A full list is available here: . Full nudity on other beaches is legal, but rare, and usually only happens in non-crowded places.
There is a Pub Crawl that meets every night under the astronomical clock in the Old Town Square of Prague at 9:15. Its cheap and they take you to some cool pubs, bars and you end up at a night club. Its a really good way to see what the Prague night life is really like. Even in the off season.
Geocaching is a popular sport in the Czech Republic, there are thousands of caches both in the cities and in the country. Czech caches are usually listed on geocaching.com and the descriptions are often bilingual (Czech and English).
Czech Republic is one of the very few (if not the only) country to have an official chimney climbing association - "Svaz českých komínářů" or the "Union of Czech Chimney Climbers" - a state-registered civic organization of people who climb factory chimneys and cooling towers as a leisure activity and also take part in industrial architecture history documentation as well as chimney maintenance and preservation. Post a message here to apply for membership: .
Tipping is a standard 10%, and is not normally added to the bill. Don't be confused by the percentage figures listed at the bottom of the bill - by Czech law, a receipt must show the VAT paid (19% in most cases) - the VAT is already included in the final amount, and you should add 10% to this. It is normal practice to give the waiter the tip before you leave the table. Tip is not obligatory - if you weren't satisfied with services offered, don't bother tipping.
In a vast majority of better restaurants located in major cities you can pay by credit card (EC/MC, VISA), but don't be surprised if a few will not accept them. Make sure to check the door for respective card logos when entering the restaurant or ask the waiter before ordering. Czechs sometimes use special tickets (stravenky) to pay in some restaurants - these are tax-preferred and subsidised by employers. You won't get these tickets unless you get a job in the Czech Republic, just don't be surprised when you see them.
Traditional local food
Traditional Czech food is hearty and suitable after a hard day in the fields. It is heavy and quite fatty, and is excellent in the winter. In the recent time there was a tendency towards more light food with more vegetables, now the traditional heavy and fatty Czech food is usually not eaten everyday and some people avoid it entirely. However nothing goes as well with the excellent Czech beer as some of the best examples of the traditional Czech cuisine, like pork, duck, or goose with knedlíky (dumplings) and sauerkraut.
A traditional main meal of a day (usually lunch) consists of two or three dishes. The first dish is hot soup (polévka). The second dish is the most important part, very often based on some meat and side-dish (both served on the same plate). The third, optional part is either something sweet (and coffee) or small vegetable salad or something similar.
The Czech cuisine knows many different kinds of soup (polévka). The most common are bramboračka - potato soup (sometimes with forest mushrooms), hovězí vývar - clear beef soup (sometimes s játrovými knedlíčky - with liver dumplings), gulášovka - thick goulash soup, zelňačka - thick and sour cabbage soup, česnečka (strong garlic soup, very healthy and tasty, but do not eat this before kissing), kulajda - thick soup with forest mushrooms and milk, hrášková polévka from young green peas, čočková polévka from lentils, fazolačka from beans, rajská polévka - tomato soup, and many others. A special case not to everyone's tastes is držková polévka made from cow stomach. Rybí polévka - thick fish soup made from carps (including its head, some innards, roe and sperm) is the traditional soup of the Christmas Dinner.
Some soups are eaten with piece of bread or rolls, sometimes small roasted pieces of white bread are put inside the soup just in time before eating. Soup can be also eaten as the only dish, especially for a smaller dinner.
The second dish (main course, hlavní jídlo) of a lunch is (in the traditional cuisine) often the famous heavy and fatty part, very often based on pork, but also beef, chicken, duck, or other meat. Important part of most main courses is side-dish (the whole dish including the side-dish is served on one plate) - usually cooked or baked potatoes, fries, rice, pasta or the most typical side-dish of the Czech cuisine - knedlíky.
Knedlíky (usually translated as dumplings) come in many different kinds. Most kinds are used as side-dish, however some kinds with filling are used as dish by itself. The most common type, always used as side-dish, are houskové knedlíky (roll dumplings). These are cooked in a shape of a cylinder, which is then cut into round slices about 8 cm in diameter remotely resembling white bread. Houskové knedlíky are served with Czech classics such as guláš, similar to Hungarian goulash but with a thinner sauce and less spicy; Svíčková na smetaně, beef sirloin with a creamy root vegetable (carrot, celeriac, parsnip) sauce, served with a tablespoon of cranberry sauce, a slice of orange and whipped cream; Vepřová pečeně se zelím a knedlíkem locally named as Vepřo-knedlo-zelo, the combination of roast pork, knedlíky and sauerkraut. The latter combines very well with the world-famous Czech beer, the major brands being Pilsner Urquell, Gambrinus, Budvar, Staropramen, Velkopopovický Kozel and Krušovice.
Another common kind is bramborové knedlíky (potato dumplings), the slices are smaller, more yellow in color, and are also always served as a side-dish. A typical combination is roasted meet (pork or lamb for example) with spinach and bramborové knedlíky or duck with sauerkraut and bramborové knedlíky (or combination of bramborové and houskové knedlíky). Less common are chlupaté knedlíky (hairy dumplings, but there are no hairs, don't panic), which are not sliced but cooked in shape of balls. They are also usually served with roasted meat and either sauerkraut or spinach.
Other Czech dishes include pečená kachna, roast duck again served with bread or potato dumplings, and red and white sauerkraut; moravský vrabec, known as 'Moravian Sparrow', but which is in fact pork cooked in garlic and onions; smažený kapr, fried carp breaded and served with a very rich potato salad and eaten on Christmas Eve; pečené vepřové koleno, roast pork knee, served with mustard and fresh horseradish; bramborák, garlicky potato pancakes; smažený sýr, breaded deep-fried edam (the most popular cheese in the Czech Republic) served with boiled potatoes or french fries and tartar sauce; párek v rohlíku, long, thin hot dogs with crusty rolls and mustard or ketchup. If you must, you can always get hranolky - french fries. And of course, the ubiquitous zelí (raw cabbage), which is served with absolutely everything. Game is also very good, and includes dishes such as kančí, wild boar, bažant, pheasant and jelení or daňčí, both types of venison. These are almost always served either with dumplings and red and white cabbage, or as guláš.
Don't expect a wide selection of zelenina, vegetables, unless in the countryside - peppers, tomatoes and cabbage are the most commonly-seen side dishes, often served as a small garnish.
US-citizens may be surprised when they find "American potatoes" in the menu. These are like fried or baked potatoes, usually spiced.
Meals You Usually Do Not Get in a Restaurant
Generally, probably the best place to really try the Czech cuisine is to be invited for such a meal to somebody's home. However, it is not so easy, because people today tend to prepare simpler and more international foods. Traditional Czech cuisine is often reserved to Sundays or some holidays or prepared by old grandma when her children visits her. This is not a rule, but it is a common situation. In common restaurants, even the better ones, the traditional Czech food usually does not match what the old grandma serves. This does not mean that the food is bad or not tasty, but it is missing something that the home preparation can provide. In luxurious restaurants specialized in Czech cuisine, the food can be excellent, but the luxurious style and creative improvements by the chef often do not match the style of the traditional folk cuisine. Again, this is not a hard rule. Sometimes you can compliment the food in a restaurant "As if my grandma prepared it."
There are some dishes that are usually not served in any restaurants or pubs, are usually made at home and are worth trying if you have the opportunity. Brambory na loupačku ("potatoes to be peeled") is a cheap and simple meal usually made in the countryside. Whole unpeeled potatoes are cooked in a big pot and put in the pot itself or a bowl on the table. You just take a hot potato from the pot, peel it yourself, put some salt, butter, and/or curd (tvaroh) on it and eat it. Drink it down with lot of cold milk. For such a simply meal it can be incredibly tasty, especially when eaten in the countryside after a day spent outside and chatting over it.
Picking mushrooms in forests is a very popular activity in the Czech Republic. Probably not surprisingly, collected mushrooms are eaten then. In restaurants, usually only cultivated mushrooms are used. If forest mushrooms are served in a restaurant, then usually only as a minor addition to a meal. Homemade mushroom meals are a completely different story. A classic example is Smaženice (the name is based on the verb 'smažit' - to fry), also known as míchanice (to mix) - forest mushrooms, the more kinds the better, are sliced to small pieces, mixed and stewed (with some fat, onion, and caraway). Later, eggs are added to the mixture. Smaženice is served with bread. Smažené bedly are whole caps of parasol mushrooms coated in breadcrumbs and fried. Černý kuba (literally black jimmy) is a traditional Christmas fasting meal made from dried mushrooms and peeled barley. Houbová omáčka (mushroom sauce), served with meat and bread dumplings is also popular. Fresh or dried mushrooms make also a nice addition to bramboračka s houbami (potato soup with mushrooms). Kulajda is a soup from mushrooms and cream. Soups and sauces are the most likely forest mushroom meals to find in a restaurant, because they contain relatively small amount of mushrooms.
If you want to pick mushrooms by yourself, be careful. There are hundreds of species, some of them very tasty, some merely edible, but some poisonous or even deadly. There is also a species used as a hallucinogenic drug. A tasty and edible species may look very similar to a deadly species. If you do not know mushrooms very well, you should be accompanied by an experienced mushroom-picker.
Also try traditional beer snacks, often the only food served in some pubs (hospoda, pivnice), and designed to be washed down by a good beer:
- Utopenec - (means 'drowned man' in Czech) a pickled sausage with onion, garlic and other vegetables and spices.
- Zavináč - (rollmop) a slice of pickled fish, most often herring or mackerel, rolled-up and filled with various pickled vegetables (sauerkraut, onion, sometimes carrot or pepper).
- Tlačenka s cibulí - (brawn with onion) a slice of haggis-like meat pudding, sprinkled with vinegar and garnished with fresh onion slices. Beware, can be rather acidic due to vinegar.
- Nakládaný Hermelín - pickled Brie-like cheese, often marinated with garlic and chilli.
- Pivní sýr - beer cheese - a soft cheese, with a strong, Cheddar-like flavour. You should add a splash of beer to the cheese, and then mash it all together, and serve it on traditional Czech bread - Šumava (the name of a region in South Bohemia) is the most common bread, a very tasty dense loaf made from rye and carroway seeds.
- Tvarůžky or Syrečky - traditional cheese with a very strong aroma, and very much an aquired taste. Often served deep-fried, but can be eaten alone, just with some chopped onion, mustard and bread. Sometimes also marinated in beer ('syrečky v pivu'). This cheese naturaly contains almost no fat (less than 1%).
- Romadur - traditional cheese with strong aroma. Aroma is similar to Tvarůžky, but Romadur is different type of cheese.
If you want a warm, bigger, and more complicated meal which goes excellently with beer, get some of the typical Czech meals based on fatty meat (pork, duck, or goose) with sauerkraut and knedlíky (dumplings). Another excellent option is a whole pork knee with horseradish and bread (ovarové koleno s křenem).
Czechs like sweets but consumer patterns are different compared to France, USA or the UK. As everywhere some traditional treats have become a mass-market production for tourists, others are pretty difficult to be found.
On the street
- Lázeňské oplatky - spa wafers from Mariánské Lázně and Karlovy Vary (major spa towns in Western Bohemia better known by their German names of Marienbad and Karlsbad) are meant to be eaten while "taking the waters" at a spa, but they're good on their own, too. Other major spas are Karlova Studánka (favourite destination of Václav Havel - former Czechoslovakian president), Františkovy Lázně, Jánské Lázně, Karviná, and Luhačovice. You will find most easily not only in spa resorts but also in Prague. Have them either out of the box on your own or heated and iced with sugar, cinnamon or so.
- Trdlo - is being offered in dedicated sell-points in the streets of Prague. It is a mediaeval style sweet roll from eggs and flour.
- Jablkový závin or štrůdl, apple strudel, often served warm with whipped cream.
- Medovník - a newcomer having quickly spread in most restaurants. A brown high cake made of gingerbread, honey and wallnuts.
- Ovocné knedlíky - fruit stuffed dumplings served either as main course or a filling dessert. The smaller ones ('tvarohové') come with plum, apple or apricot filling, the bigger ones ('kynuté') come with strawberries, blueberries, povidla (plum jam) or toher fruits. Knedlíky are served with melted butter, iced with tvaroh (curd cheese) and sugar, and topped with whipped cream.
- Palačinka - not much to have with French crepe, these pancakes are usually thicker and fatty served with whatever may come into the Chef's mind - usually at least icecream, fruits and whipped cream.
Try also the wide variety of rich cream cakes usually found in a Kavárna (a cafe), or a Cukrárna (a shop which sells all things sweet together with ice cream and drinks, found throughout the Czech Republic and often the only place open in small towns and villages on Sundays). Czech cakes are similar to their Viennese cousins due to the shared history of both countries under the Austro-Hungarian empire. Sample also Vídeňská káva (Viennese coffee), coffee served with a mountain of whipped cream.
- Rakvička is a light crispy biscuit with icecream,
- Větrník is a round French éclair style cream cake,
- Punčák is a rum soaked pink biscuit sugar-glazed cake,
- Laskonka is a coconut and cream based sandwich cake, and many more!
- Bábovka - a traditional cake, similar to marble cake, fairly dry, and usually served dusted with icing sugar.
- Buchty - traditional buns filled with tvaroh (curd cheese), mák (poppy seeds), or povidla (plum jam)
- Koláče - rather popular flat tarts topped with various sweet fillings like tvaroh, povidla, mák, fruit jams, chopped apples and nuts. Their size ranges from bite-sized ('svatební koláčky') to pizza-sized, which often contain several fillings combined into an elaborate pattern ('Chodský koláč' or 'frgál').
The Czech Republic is the country where modern beer (pivo in Czech) was invented (in Plzeň). Czechs are the heaviest beer drinkers in the world, drinking about 160 litres of it per capita per year. Going to a cosy Czech pub for dinner and a few beers is a must!
The best-known export brands are Pilsner Urquell (Plzeňský Prazdroj), Budweiser Budvar (Budějovický Budvar) and Staropramen. Other major brands which are popular domestically include Gambrinus, Kozel, Bernard (a small traditional brewery, with very high quality beer), Radegast, and Starobrno (made in Brno, the capital of Moravia). Other fantastic beers worth tasting are Svijany and Dobřanská Hvězda. Although many Czechs tend to be very selective about beer brands, tourists usually don't find a significant difference. And remember, real Czech beer is only served on tap – bottled beer is a completely different experience. High-quality beer can almost certainly be found in a hospoda or hostinec, very basic pubs which serve only beer and light snacks. Take a seat and order your drinks when the waiter comes to you - going to the bar to order your drinks is a British custom! But beware, the handling of the beer is even more important than its brand. A bad bartender can completely ruin even excellent beer. Best bet is to ask local beer connoiseurs about a good pub or just join them.
Beers are sometimes listed by their original sugar content, which is measured in degrees Plato (P/°). The difference is generally apparent in the final alcohol content. Normal beer is about 10° (such as Gambrinus and Staropramen, which results in 4% ABV), lager 12° (such as Pilsner Urquell, which results in about 4.75% ABV). The latter is stronger and more expensive, so you should specify which one you want when you order. Czech lager is nothing like the fizzy lagers found in many other countries. Instead, it has a very strong, hoppy, almost bitter flavour, and goes very well with heavy dishes like duck or pork and dumplings or strong cheeses. It always has a thick skim on the top when it is served, but do not be afraid to drink "through" it, it is fun and it slowly disappears anyway, nevertheless do not drink the beer too slowly as the fresh cold taste (especially in hot summers) quickly fades – the "true" Czech connoisseurs do not even finish this "tepid goat," as they call it.
Wine (víno in Czech) is another popular drink, particularly wine from Moravia in the south-eastern part of the country where the climate is more suited to vineyards. White wines tend to be the best as the growing conditions are more favourable for them. For white wines, try Veltlínské zelené (Green Veltliner), Muškát moravský (Moravian Muscatel), Ryzlink rýnský (Rhine Riesling) or Tramín (Traminer), or red wines such as Frankovka (Blaufrankisch), Modrý Portugal (Blue Portugal, named after the grape, not the country), or Svatovavřinecké (Saint Lawrence). Also try ice wine (ledové víno) made when the grapes are harvested after they have frozen on the vines, or straw wine (slámové víno) made by leaving the grapes to ripen on straw) – these wines are more expensive and are similar to dessert wines. Bohemian Sekt is also popular with Czechs, and is a sweet, fizzy wine, similar to Lambrusco, and drunk at celebrations. The best places for wine are either a wine bar (vinárna), or a wine shop (vinotéka) which sometimes has a small bar area too.
For spirits, try Becherovka (herb liqueur, similar to Jagermeister, tastes of a mixtures of cloves and cinnamon, and drunk as a digestive), slivovice (plum brandy, very popular as a pick-me-up), hruškovice (pear brandy, less fiery than Slivovice), and so on. Spirits are made out of almost every kind of fruit (Plums, Peaches, Cherries, Sloes, etc.). Czech unique tuzemský rum (made from sugar beet, not from sugar cane as the Cuban rum, sold under brands like Tuzemák to conform with EU market rules). Be careful as all are about 40% alcohol.
For non-alcoholic drinks, mineral waters are popular, but tend to have a strong mineral taste. Try Mattoni, or Magnesia, both of which taste like normal water and still claim to be good for your health. If you want bubbles, ask for perlivá. If you want it non-carbonated, ask for neperlivá. Sometimes you can see jemně perlivá – it is "lightly bubbled" water. Kofola, a coke-like drink is also very popular, and some Czechs say it is the best thing the communists gave them. Many restaurants don't make any difference between "sparkling water" and "sparkling mineral water".
Restaurants and pubs do not offer water for free. Not surprisingly, as beer is the national drink, it is usually the cheapest drink you can buy, with prices ranging from 15–60 Kč (0,50–2 EUR) per half litre, depending on the attractiveness of the pub to tourists. Drinks are brought to your table, and often each drink is marked on a small slip of paper which is kept on the table in front of you, so you can keep count of what you have had. When you are ready to leave, ask the waiter for the bill – he or she will calculate the bill according to the number of marks on the paper. It is common to share tables in busy pubs and Czech people will ask Je tu volno? (Is this seat free?), before they sit down.
Try also svařák, hot mulled wine served in all pubs, and outdoors at Christmas markets, grog, hot rum and water served with a slice of lemon - add sugar to taste, and medovina, mead, again usually served hot, and particularly good for warming up at a cold winter market. Finally, if you are heading into Moravia, try burčák, a speciality found only around the end of the summer, or early autumn. It is extremely young wine, usually white, and is the cloudy, still fermenting stage in wine production when the wine is very sweet, and very smooth to drink. It continues to ferment in the stomach, so the alcohol content at the time of drinking it is unknown, but it is usually high, creeps up on you, and it is very moreish. Czechs say that it should only be drunk fresh from the vineyard, and many small private wine makers are passionate about it, waiting up into the night for the moment when the wine reaches the "burčák" stage. You can see it at wine festivals around the country, and sometimes in markets or wine bars too.
- Taxi drivers: warning - negotiate the price before you use taxi or use a reputable company (e.g. in Prague AAA taxi, Profi Taxi, City Taxi). Prague taxi drivers are known for taking you the longest possible way to earn more money. Prague City Council has introduced new regulations which will see all legitimate taxis painted yellow. Public transportation is also very cheap, fast and reliable. In Prague, the metro runs up to midnight, and night trams run throughout the night, all of them converging at a central tram stop, Lazarská.
- Pickpockets: Watch your pockets, especially if there is a crowd (sights, subway, trams, in particular numbers 9, 22, and 23) Watch out for large groups of people jostling you. Beware of a particular pickpocket gang who operate in Prague - they are mainly male, although sometimes there are women too, all are extremely overweight and rely on their sheer size and number to disorientate tourists. They tend to operate on the 9, 22, and 23 trams, as well as the central metro stations, usually just as people are getting on and off. Don't challenge them as they can become aggressive, but keep your eyes open. Prosecutions for pick pocketing are rare as legally the police have to catch the pickpocket in the middle of a crime.
- Prostitution: Prostitution is not illegal in the Czech Republic. However, officially prostitution does not exist as a legal bussiness. Prostitutes do not pay taxes and prostitution is not regulated by the state. The health risk may be very high, especially in cheap brothels or on a street. There also have been cases of prostitutes offering a drink with sleeping pills to their customers and stealing everything from them. Pay attention to the age of the prostitute, paying a person under 18 years for sex is a criminal offense (otherwise the legal sex age is 15).
- Marijuana: Marijuana is illegal in the Czech Republic, however it is quite popular especially among young people. In case the Police catch you smoking or possessing marijuana, you want to be very polite with them. The reason is that by the current law, possesing "larger than small" amount of marijuana is punishable. What "larger than small" actually means is left to interpretation by the Police (or judge, if things go that far). A new law with more exact numbers is in preparation.
- Other than that the Czech Republic is a very safe country.
Grocery stores do not sell what Americans consider over-the-counter drugs, such as aspirin. You will need to go to a pharmacy (lékárna), which is usually open between 8am and 7pm, Mondays to Fridays. There are 24-hour pharmacies in the bigger cities, and you should find an address for the closest one to you listed in the window of the nearest pharmacy to you. If you are in Prague, the most central 24-hour one is in Prague 2 - on the corner of Belgická and Rumunská streets - they dispense both prescription and non-prescription drugs from a small window on Rumunská out of hours - ring the bell if there is no-one there.
Tap water is good, although the chlorine can be quite strong.
A reputable hospital in Prague is Nemocnice na Homolce, Address: Roentgenova 37/2, Prague 5 (tel 257 272 350). There is a foreigners' clinic (Cizinecké oddělení) there with English-speaking receptionists who can make appointments for you. Most doctors speak some English, and the level of care is of a very high standard.
Central Europe and parts of the Czech Republic have ticks (Ixodes ricinus) which can carry Encephalitis or Lyme Borreliosis. Ticks hide in grass and bushes, so try to stay on trails and inspect exposed areas of skin after a hike. Vaccination against Encephalitis is available and recommended. If you want to bushwhack, make sure you have the vaccination and wear long trousers. A good insect repellent (which contains DEET), might be helpful, too. Ticks like to cling to any soft, warm, well-perfused areas of your body (undersides of knees and elbows, skin around ankles, groins, neck area, behind your ears etc.) and if not removed, they'll suck your blood until they grow about 1 cm big. Never try to scratch a tick off or pull it out, because damaging it can cause you a serious infection. The sooner the tick is removed, the smaller the chance of infection. Either ask a physician to remove a tick for you, or try to remove it by yourself: lubricate your finger with any greasy lotion and gently wag a tick from side to side until it wobbles free. Then burn it - never crush it to avoid infection. Watch the affected spot: if you see a growing red spot developing there anytime during next several months, immediately visit your physician and tell him about that - you might have contracted Borreliosis. It is dangerous, but it can be easily treated with antibiotics during early stage. Be wary that American vaccination against Borreliosis most probably won't work against European strains (B. afzelii and B. garini). Note that ticks are sometimes present even in city parks, including Prague.
Czechs don't appreciate when foreigners incorrectly assume that Czechoslovakia was part of the Soviet Union or the Russian Empire -- both definitely false -- although it was part of the Soviet Bloc and, until 1918, an Austro-Hungarian territory. Commenting about how "everything is quite cheap here" comes across as condescending about the country's economic status, and in any case is no longer true (other than beer).
Czechs are one of the most atheist people in the world, and are very proud of it. This is true especially in large Bohemian cities. Don't assume that anyone you do not know believes in God or has a passion for Christianity. Respect that and your religion will also be respected.
Always say hello (Dobrý den) and goodbye (Na shledanou) when you enter and leave a small shop as it is polite.
This page was last edited at 15:12, on 12 March 2009 by Wikitravel user Ypsilon. Based on work by Marc Heiden, Jiří Dobrý and Marek Blahus, Wikitravel user(s) Miropiro and Oddsocks, Anonymous user(s) of Wikitravel and others.