Baden-Württemberg  is one of the 16 states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Home to the word famous Black Forest and the celebrated romantic city of Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg is a top tourist destination within Germany and Central Europe. Located in southern Germany, it is part of the southern German speaking world where dialect and tradition remain strong. Thus it shares many traditions with its neighbors in Alsace in France to the west and in Switzerland and Vorarlberg (Austria) to the south. It is also much more rural and bucolic than central and northern Germany making it a popular destination for visiting natural spas with supposed curative properties or going on long hikes in its many old forests.
Alternative spellings of the name of this state are Baden-Wuerttemberg and Baden-Wurttemberg.
Baden-Württemberg consists of two parts, Baden and Württemberg. The former is subdivided into the Regierungsbezirk Freiburg and the Regierungsbezirk Karlsruhe, while the latter consists of the Regierungsbezirks Tübingen and Stuttgart.
Among the West-German states, Baden-Württemberg is one of the youngest, having been founded in 1952 through a unification of administrative areas that, until the end of WW I in 1918, had been mostly covered by the kingdom of Württemberg, the grand-duchy of Baden and the kingdom of Hohenzollern. The consequence of this - and that's the important bit a traveller should know - is that there are now two tribes living together in the state: Badener in the west and Schwaben in the east. Both speak different dialects (see below) and share a love-hate relationship towards each other that's nurtured with a lot of humour. For what unites both tribes and the rest of the people living here is a pride for "their" Baden-Württemberg and what they have made of it since its creation, that's surprising for Germans from up north. Since 1999, the state has been advertising itself all over Germany with the slogan "We can do everything, except for speaking Standard German." (Wir können alles, außer Hochdeutsch), a tongue-in-cheek play on the infamous dialects (see below).
And indeed, Baden-Württemberg is doing quite well in terms of economics compared to other places in Germany. It boasts the lowest unemployment rate of the Federation, some of the best universities in Germany, a GDP per capita that rivals Switzerland and is the only German state that still has a higher birth than death rate. The European Statistics Office (Eurostat) has called Baden-Württemberg the "high-tech central of Europe". And, famously, the percentage of people owning their own home is by far the highest in Germany.
The main reason for all those superlatives lies deeply in the history of the land: Although nowadays there are about as many protestants as catholics living in Baden-Württemberg (and a third group of comparable size without religous faith), during the reformation South-West Germany was strongly influenced by the schools of Martin Luther, John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, which left behind a society with moral values circling around hard work, self-control and the general motto "God helps those who help themselves".
Hence the country that was once dirt poor, having to struggle with hard winters and frequent famines, today is plastered with high technology companies. The most important sectors are mechanical engineering (most famously Robert Bosch Inc.), Chemistry, Biotechnology and, above all, Automobiles (which were, in fact, invented here, as everyone will be happy to point out). Daimler and Porsche were founded and still have their headquarters around Stuttgart; Audi, Volkswagen and others have large plants in the state. If one counts in the small and medium-sized suppliers, every other employee in Baden-Württemberg is working for the car industry, directly or indirectly. As Max Weber, a philosopher at Heidelberg University said, around here, it's "Capitalism as it was meant to be".
While every region in Germany has its own dialect to the formal language (Hochdeutsch) Baden-Württemberg (together with Bavaria and maybe Saxony) is among those regions where the difference between formal German and the local dialect are strongest, even to the point of being incomprehensible for native German speakers from further north.
The two most prominent dialects spoken in the state are Badisch and Schwäbisch, but there are numerous others (among them Alemannisch, spoken by the tribe that earned the Germans their name in French, living around Lake Konstanz, Kurpfälzisch, spoken in the region surrounding Mannheim and Heidelberg and Fränkisch in the north east). Needless to say, the differences between those languages, albeit fundamental issues of local pride for the natives, are very difficult to hear for the outsider.
In stark contrast to other areas of Germany (where dialect is considered to be the language of peasants), people in Baden-Württemberg, especially around Stuttgart but even in the regions parliament, tend to be surprisingly proud of their dialect and might even be reluctant to speak formal German with foreigners (which is no problem for the English speaking visitor, of course. As everywhere in Germany, even in remote villages you will always find someone around who is able to speak at least broken English). A Linguist might point out that Schwäbisch and Badisch are in fact enhanced versions of German (the term Hochdeutsch actually means "Southern German". It was spread over Germany in a period of the south's hegemony and the actual south German dialects moved on from there). But a more realistic explanation for the reluctancy of many southerners to speak Hochdeutsch might be that many of them just don't know how to do so properly. In the truly German fashion of employing off-beat humor, the state's regional tourist website has gone as far as proclaiming Baden-Württembergers, with their high-tech image, "the federal-state that can do anything, outside of speaking standard German (Hochdeutsch)"!
Stuttgart has an international airport which is served by all major carriers. Frankfurt international (FRA), the busiest airport in mainland Europe is, although not in Baden Württemberg, well within reach by train (1 hour from FRA to Stuttgart main station via high speed ICE connection). Low-fares airlines offer services to the local airports of Karlsruhe-Baden Baden and Friedrichshafen.
Travellers beware: "Frankfurt Hahn", the big hub for low-fares airlines should not to be confused with FRA. In stark contrast, it has no train station and lies rather remote. It is still possible to get from Hahn into Baden-Württemberg rather conveniently, but it sure takes a lot longer and more hazzles than from FRA.
All major cities are well connected through the Deutsche Bahn rail system. Ulm, Karlsruhe, Mannheim, Heidelberg, Stuttgart and Freiburg even have ICE connections (slick, comfortable, white high speed trains travelling at up to 190 mph (300km/h)). Tickets can be booked via the Deutsche Bahn Website 
Baden-Württemberg (as well as some other regions in Germany) offers a special regional train ticket (in this case, the Baden-Württemberg ticket). It is valid for one day from 9am. With this ticket up to five people can use all regional trains within Baden-Württemberg for 30 Euro alltogether (18 EURO for a single ticket). That means you can use all trains except InterCity(IC), InterCityExpress(ICE), EuroCity(EC) and some special trains. As it is valid for up to five people you can ask others, if they want to get to the same direction and share their ticket.
Baden-Württemberg has an excellent rail network, serving even quite remote areas. Especially rural villages are served by busses which generally leave from main train stations in larger towns and cities.
Of course you can always use your car. If you are travelling in the Black Forest or the Swabian Alb during winter, bring snow chains as some smaller roads may not be plowed frequently enough. When travelling on the Autobahn, the same precautions as everywhere on German high speed roads apply: If you're not willing (and prepared) to drive consistently above 80 mph (130 km/h), stay on the right. Make room for people trying to overtake, use your common sense, don't drive faster than you can think.
For those interested in "high culture":
- The green capital Stuttgart with its world-class opera house (the Staatstheater), city castle and famous gallery of modern art.
- Mannheim, the "Squared City" boasts one of Germany's most important theatres (the Nationaltheater).
- The romantic student city Heidelberg with its famed castle, Germany's oldest University and scenic setting at the opening of the Neckar valley into the Rhine valley is an absolute must.
- In the southeast, the calvinistic protestant citizens of Ulm built the world's tallest church.
For those fond of nature:
- The Black Forest to the east of the Rhine Valley has been declared national heritage and will gradually return into a wild state over the next century.
- The Schwäbische Alb in the south is a rough landscape with limestone geology, featuring huge caves, deep blue lakes (e.g. the Blautopf) and long walking trails.
- Lake Konstanz (Bodensee) at the border to Switzerland and Austria is Germany's largest lake, source of drinking water for millions and a haven for hikers, cyclists and sailors. Around its banks, you can discover Stone Age settlements, the "Flower Island" Mainau and the medieval peninsula of Lindau where the living Nobel Laureates of the world meet once a year.
For those interested in touring castles
- Like much of Germany, Baden-Württemberg is sprinkled with beautiful castles. From the ancient home of the Hohenzollerns to the homes of the Wüttemberg Dukes and Kings.
The official tourism homepage is at http://www.tourismus-bw.de/. Click on the "English" link at the top.
- The "national dish" of Württemberg is Spätzle, a freshly prepared pasta made from eggs, flour, salt and water (and nothing else). It is typically served topped with cheese (Kässpätzle) or lentills and Wiener Sausage (Spätzle mit Linsen und Saitenwürschdle, as the sausages are of course not called "Wiener" around here).
- Another speciality, mostly eaten as a side-dish, is potato salad (Kartoffelsalat) which, in contrast to the northern German variety is prepared with broth instead of mayonaise, creating in effect a completely different dish.
Baden-Württemberg contains some of Germany's most significant wine-growing regions. Much of the wine economy is in the hands of local co-operatives and the locals enjoy the wine in old-fashioned wine cellars. The best wine grows in an area called the Kaiserstuhl in Baden.
Fruit brandies, e.g. Obstler (distilled from apples and pears) and Zwetschgenwasser (plums) are just two of the most common spirits. The queen of Schnaps is without any doubt the Kirschwasser (also sometimes referred to as Kirschwaesserle) made out of cherries from the black forest area. These are commonly drunk after a meal in a restaurant.
There are some breweries of note in the region, of which Rothaus is one which enjoys cult status.
Baden-Württemberg is one of the safest regions in Germany. In large cities like Mannheim and especially Stuttgart, be aware of theft. Other regions are safe and you can travel alone without any problems. Even walking alone late at night is no problem.
This page was last edited at 14:53, on 6 March 2009 by Anonymous user(s) of Wikitravel. Based on work by Shamil Abakarov, Peter Fitzgerald, Philipp Schäufele, Tim Sandell, Nick Roux, Jonas Söderström and Daniel Cowan, Wikitravel user(s) Gilliam, WindHorse and DorganBot, Anonymous user(s) of Wikitravel and others.